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As a special exception, the Harbour Project gives permission for additional uses of the text contained in its release of Harbour. The exception is that, if you link the Harbour libraries with other files to produce an executable, this does not by itself cause the resulting executable to be covered by the GNU General Public License. Your use of that executable is in no way restricted on account of linking the Harbour library code into it. This exception does not however invalidate any other reasons why the executable file might be covered by the GNU General Public License. This exception applies only to the code released by the Harbour Project under the name Harbour. If you copy code from other Harbour Project or Free Software Foundation releases into a copy of Harbour, as the General Public License permits, the exception does not apply to the code that you add in this way. 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If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system, which is implemented by public license practices. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. 8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. 9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. 10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. NO WARRANTY 11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION. 12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS Appendix: How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.> Copyright (C) 19yy <name of author> This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) 19yy name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; type `show c' for details. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names: Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989 Ty Coon, President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General Public License instead of this License. File : Harbour\COPYING.TXT
Id: 1stread.txt 18716 2012-12-03 13:52:22Z vszakats
Harbour is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this software; see the file COPYING.txt. If not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA (or visit the web site ).
As a special exception, the Harbour Project gives permission for additional uses of the text contained in its release of Harbour.
The exception is that, if you link the Harbour libraries with other files to produce an executable, this does not by itself cause the resulting executable to be covered by the GNU General Public License. Your use of that executable is in no way restricted on account of linking the Harbour library code into it.
This exception does not however invalidate any other reasons why the executable file might be covered by the GNU General Public License.
This exception applies only to the code released by the Harbour Project under the name Harbour. If you copy code from other Harbour Project or Free Software Foundation releases into a copy of Harbour, as the General Public License permits, the exception does not apply to the code that you add in this way. To avoid misleading anyone as to the status of such modified files, you must delete this exception notice from them.
If you write modifications of your own for Harbour, it is your choice whether to permit this exception to apply to your modifications. If you do not wish that, delete this exception notice.
Template : Document
Name : 1st document to read
Category : Document
Subcategory: General Info
Oneliner : A starters guide to Harbour
Welcome to Harbour
Clipper is a trademark of Computer Associates and will often be referred to as CA-Cl*pper within Harbour documents. Regardless of this variant, Clipper is recognized as Computer Associates’ trademark.
Harbour is a free software compiler for the xBase superset language often referred to as Clipper (the language that is implemented by the compiler Clipper). The goal of the Harbour project is to produce a cross platform CA-Cl*pper compatible compiler.
The Harbour web site is at : http://harbour-project.org. If you have any problems with this copy of Harbour please visit our web site and ensure that you are using the latest release.
If you have any questions about Harbour please be sure to read the FAQ. Also, please be sure to read the documentation that comes with Harbour, you should find it in the same directory in which you found this file.
If you are reading this file as part of a source distribution of harbour you probably want to start by reading dirstruc.txt because this is your map to the harbour source directories.
Harbour is a superset of Clipper and is backwards compatible with nearly 100% of all Clipper 5.2x or 5.3 code. Most Clipper S’87 code will also compile and run fine, but may require some modifications to run well.
Platforms : All
Notes on early days of Clipper
Some quotations :
Clipper was originally built in 1985 as a compiler for dBASE III.
Clipper was built by Nantucket Corporation led by Barry ReBell (management) and Brian Russell (technical), and later sold to …
Brett Oliver, Jim Warner, Brian Russell, Richard McConnell …
Main architects and primary developers of Clipper and founders of Nantucket Corporation. It was 1984 when
Clipper was born.
Clipper Summer’87 Manual, “Credits” page :
Clipper 5.0 Manual, “Credits” page :
… and 30 years after birth of this phenomenal myth, one (or first) of main builders suddenly appeared : Brett Oliver !
By a comment to one page of this blog :
Not only main starter / builder of Clipper, he is also author of wonderful books :
Clipper Programming: An In-Depth Introduction to Programming
This book also is a myth.
And he told me on request, something on beginning and building story of this great myth;
Brian was working at Ashton-Tate, as was I.
I was in tech support, alongside Brian, and customers that were phoning in kept asking for a compiler.
So I approached Barry for the money to back it. He had a temp agency. I met him in the Ashton-Tate cafeteria.
I recruited Brian at lunch at a Japanese restaurant in Culver city.
Clipper was the first program Brian had written in ‘C’.
He learned C as he programmed Clipper.
I asked him when I was recruiting him if he had ever written a compiler.
He said he had written a Pascal compiler in university. (He later admitted that it had never worked!).
The first development office was a beach house in Malibu.
Tom Rettig was the editor for dNEWS at Ashton-Tate. I took over as editor of dNEWS.
I was the first VP of sales, and one of my employees was Mary Beth. I introduced her to Brian and later they married.
At the first Comdex in Vegas, Brian was upstairs in his room – coding.
He got one command to work – paint a dot on the screen. We demonstrated that one command, and showed that we could draw a box 20 times faster than dBASE.
I wrote a couple of books on Clipper, and was also on the dBASE for Windows development team at Borland.
I worked with Tom at his condo in Santa Monica for a time. Too bad he died.
Barry died in 2009.
Brian and I went dirt biking together. He loaned me his street bike for a couple of months when my car was getting fixed. He is a good guy. I think he is working in LA.
We live in San Diego, – my wife is from Liechtenstein. We have three boys.
I am Scottish. Currently programming in eCommerce.
Anyway, nice chatting.
Stay in touch.
I wish he will write more …
Harbour : Harbour compiler
HbFormat : Formats the source code according to certain criteria
HbIDE : Visual Development environment for the Harbour and other xBase dialects
Hbi18n : A tool that makes finding applications for other languages
HbMk2 : Ultimate project maker for Harbour applications
HbNetIO : Harbour NETIO Server
HbPP : Harbour preprocessor
HbRun : Console interpreter and .prg/.hrb runner for the Harbour Language
HbTest : Harbour Regression Test Suite
rcc.exe : Qt resource compiler
uic.exe : Qt User Interface Compiler
upx.exe : Ultimate Packer for eXecutables
windres : Resource compiler
Some usage tips
Harbour 3.2.0dev (Rev. 18805) Copyright (c) 1999-2013, http://harbour-project.org/ Syntax: c:\harbour\bin\harbour.exe <file[s][.prg]|@file> [options] Options: /a automatic memvar declaration /b debug info /build display detailed version info /credits display credits /d<id>[=<val>] #define <id> /es[<level>] set exit severity /fn[:[l|u]|-] set filename casing (l=lower u=upper) /fd[:[l|u]|-] set directory casing (l=lower u=upper) /fp[:<char>] set path separator /fs[-] turn filename space trimming on or off (default) /g<type> output type generated is <type> (see below) /gc[<type>] output type: C source (.c) (default) <type>: 0=compact (default) 1=normal 2=verbose 3=generate real C code /gh output type: Harbour Portable Object (.hrb) /gd[.<destext>] generate dependencies list into (.d) file /ge[<mode>] error output <mode>: 0=Clipper (default) 1=IDE friendly /i<path> #include file search path /i[-|+] disable/enable support for INCLUDE envvar /j[<file>] generate i18n gettext file (.pot) /k compilation mode (type -k? for more data) /l suppress line number information /m compile module only /n[<type>] no implicit starting procedure <type>: 0=no implicit starting procedure 1=no starting procedure at all 2=add starting procedure if necessary /o<path> object file drive and/or path /p[<path>] generate pre-processed output (.ppo) file /p+ generate pre-processor trace (.ppt) file /q quiet /q0 quiet and don't display program header /q2 disable all output messages /r:<max> set maximum number of preprocessor iterations /s[m] syntax check only [minimal for dependencies list] /u[<file>] use command def set in <file> (or none) /u+<file> add command def set from <file> /undef:<id> #undef <id> /v variables are assumed M-> /w[<level>] set warning level number (0..3, default 1) /x[<prefix>] set symbol init function name prefix (for .c only) /z suppress shortcutting (.and. & .or.) @<file> compile list of modules in <file>
Note : After HbMk2, direct use of Harbour.exe not required.
Harbour Source Formatter 3.2.0dev (Rev. 18770)
Copyright (c) 2009-2012, Alexander S.Kresin
Syntax: hbformat [options] [@config] <file[s]>
# # $Id: hbformat.ini 18847 2013-02-13 22:33:19Z vszakats $ #
# Eol: -1 - no change, 0 - OS default, 1 - DOS, 2 - UNIX #nEol = -1
# If true, convert file name to lower case #lFCaseLow = no
# If yes, converts all tabs to spaces #lNoTabs = yes
# If yes, indent code #lIndent = yes
# If yes, make case conversion #lCase = yes
# If yes, reformat spaces #lSpaces = yes
# If yes, indent "Function", "Procedure", "Class", "Method" #lIndFunc = no
# If yes, indent "Local", "Private", etc. in a function beginning #lIndVar = yes
# If yes, indent directives #lIndDrt = no
# If yes, indent "Return" #lIndRet = yes
# Leftmost indent - amount of spaces #nIndLeft = 3
# indent - amount of spaces #nIndNext = 3
# Indent for continuation ( after ';' ) lines - amount of spaces #nIndCont = 3
# If yes, convert asterisk '*' to '//' #lCnvAst = yes
# If yes, convert '&&' to '//' #lCnvAmp = yes
# Number of spaces after /* and // comments ( -1 - no change ) #nSpaceComment = 1
# If yes, convert .NOT. TO ! #lCnvNot = yes
# Case of commands ( -1 - no change, 1 - upper, 2 - lower, 3 - title ) #nCaseCmd = 1
# Case of boolean operators ( -1 - no change, 1 - upper, 2 - lower, 3 - title ) #nCaseBoo = 1
# Case of functions ( -1 - no change, 1 - upper, 2 - lower, 3 - title, 4 - as in pattern ) #nCaseFnc = 4
# Case of functions ( -1 - no change, 1 - upper, 2 - lower, 3 - title ) #nCaseUnk = -1
# Case of directives ( -1 - no change, 1 - upper, 2 - lower, 3 - title ) #nCaseDrt = 2
# Number of spaces after # in directives ( -1 - no change ) #nSpaceDrt = 0
# -1 - no change, 1 - insert empty line before a function ( procedure,class ) declaration, 2 - remove it #nLineFnc = 1
# -1 - no change, 1 - insert empty line before return, 2 - remove it #nLineRet = 1
# -1 - no change, 1 - insert empty line before variables declaration, 2 - remove it #nLineVar = 1
# -1 - no change, 1 - insert empty line before code in function, 2 - remove it #nLineCode = 1
# Max level of nesting in brackets, while space is added after a comma #nBr4Comma = 1
# Max level of nesting in brackets, while space is added after/before a bracket #nBr4Brac = 2
# Extension for a formatted file ( if empty - replace original ) #cExtSave =
# Extension for a backup file #cExtBack = bak
# List of space separated .hbx files for specifying proper casing of function names #cHBXList =
Internationalization (sometimes shortened to “I18N , meaning “I – eighteen letters -N”) is the process of planning and implementing products and services so that they can easily be adapted to specific local languages and cultures, a process called localization . The internationalization process is sometimes called translation or localization enablement .
Harbour i18n .pot/.hbl file manager 3.2.0dev (Rev. 18770)
Copyright (c) 2009-2013, Przemyslaw Czerpak
Syntax: hbi18n -m | -g | -a [-o<outfile>] [-e] [-q] <files1[.pot] ...>
-m merge given .pot files
-g generate .hbl file from given .pot files
-a add automatic translations to 1-st .pot file using
translations from other .pot or .hbl files
-o<outfile> output file name
default is first .pot file name with
.po (merge) or .hbl extension
-e do not strip empty translation rules from .hbl files
-q quiet mode
HbIDE : Visual Development environment for the Harbour and other xBase dialects
Harbour NETIO Server 3.2.0dev (Rev. 17976)
Copyright (c) 2009-2012, Przemyslaw Czerpak, Viktor Szakats
Harbour Preprocessor 3.2.0dev
Copyright (c) 1999-2013, http://harbour-project.org/
Syntax: c:\harbour\bin\hbpp <file[.prg]> [options]
Options: -d<id>[=<val>] #define <id>
-e[<func>] use <func> as entry function in generated .c
-i<path> add #include file search path
-u[<file>] use command def set in <file> (or none)
-c[<file>] look for ChangeLog file
-o<file> creates .c file with PP rules
-v<file> creates .h file with version information
-w write preprocessed (.ppo) file
-q disable information messages
Note: if neither -o nor -v is specified then -w is default action
Harbour Regression Test Suite
Copyright (c) 1999-2013, Viktor Szakats
Syntax: hbtest [options]
Options: -h, -? Display this help.
-all Display all tests, not only the failures.
-skip:<list> Skip the listed test numbers.
3rth Party :
rcc.exe : ( Qt resource compiler )
Enter rcc -? for options.
uic.exe : ( Qt User Interface Compiler )
Enter uic –help for options.
UPX.exe (Ultimate Packer for eXecutables)
Enter upx -? for options.
windres : ( Resource compiler )
Enter windres3011 –help for options.
What a preprocessor is, how will operate, and what benefits it will offer ?
What a preprocessor is, how will operate, and what benefits it will offer ?
Author : G.C. Reddy
A program that translates source code output from the preprocessor into object code. The resulting object file can then be linked to produce an executable program using the linker.
See Also: Linker, Object File, Program File
A program that combines object files created by a compiler to produce an executable program. The linker examines the supplied object files to resolve symbol references between modules. If a module refers to a symbol that is not defined by any of the modules, the linker searches one or more libraries to resolve the reference.
See Also: Library File, Object File
A program used to maintain multifile program systems. A make program takes as its input a file (make file) specifying the relationships between files. When executed the make program compares the date and time stamps of specified target files to the specified dependent files. If any of the dependent files have a more recent date and time stamp than the associated target files, a series of actions are performed.
See Also: Make File
Operating System :
The basic software program that organizes and services the computer and its peripheral devices. For example DOS operating system is organized into several layers as follows:
. Loader is the layer which brings the operating system software into memory.
. BIOS is the basic hardware interface layer that provides services to the kernel and consists of initialization code and device drivers.
. Kernel is the application interface layer and provides services for process control, memory management, peripheral support, and a file system.
. User interface shell (COMMAND.COM) provides basic services to the user including an interactive mode, directory management, and a service for loading and executing application programs.
. Support programs provide extended operating services not resident in the user interface shell.
A translation program that prepares source code for compilation by applying selective text replacements. The replacements to be made are specified by directives in the source file. In Clipper language, the preprocessor operates transparently as a part of the compiler program.
See Also : Compiler
Print Spooler :
A program running either on a local workstation or on the file server that captures print jobs to a file and then queues them for printing later. Print spoolers generally operate as background tasks in order to facilitate printing while other tasks are operating in the foreground.
Program Editor :
A program that builds and edits text files or programs.
How I can migrate DOS to Windows ?
By principle, Harbour can compile every Clipper Language program; and Harbour applications can run under Windows ( besides many other platforms ) with no problem. This is one of main goals of Harbour project.
Furthermore, Harbour compiled executables will be 32 bit, not 16 ;)
Maybe your application include many ( or too many ) .prg file; no problem; (almost) no modification required on your source code; nor extra scripts for compile. ( Thanks to Viktor Szakáts for really wonderful MAKE utility : HBMK2. )
Only care is : if “main” prg of your application doesn’t have a “main” module , add one PROCEDURE or FUNCTION statement to most top of your “main” .prg.
That’s all :)
You can build your application via HMG by a .bat file (or direct command in the DOS box) such as :
CALL C:\hmg\build.bat /c <mainPrgName>
or via Harbour:
SET PATH=C:\harbour\bin;C:\hmg\mingw\bin;%PATH% hbmk2 <mainPrgName> -RUN
or the simplest way :
C:\harbour\bin hbmk2 <mainPrgName> -RUN
( hbmk2 will find all necessary paths / files :) )
Of course, you need supply name of your main .prg file in place of <mainPrgName>. You may also want to change “C:\hmg” and “C:\hmg\harbour” according to your install configuration.
Please be careful about PATH command : If you call the the .bat file from Windows explorer, no problem. If you are working on command (DOS) box, calling repetitively .bat file may cause problem by grown of PATH . In this case you may build a separate .bat for only PATH command and call it only once at beginning of DOS session.
If you want convert a text (console) based application to GUI ( Graphical User Interface ) based Windows application, this is another thing and there isn’t any automatic way for this. You have need first a GUI library can be used into Harbour. After selecting which library is convenient to your needs and learning this library, you may begin planing steps of converting process. Writing your application from scratch may be longest but most secure way.
There are links to some articles about migration in the Links page; looking at this will be useful.
Clipper is a programming language, and it is also a compiler. The programming language is a superset of dBASE III+, and also shares some features with C/C++ and Smalltalk. It is a general-purpose, high-level programming language well suited to corporate and commercial applications development.
Clipper is also a compiler product. The Clipper compiler is (by definition) a fully conformant implementation of the Clipper programming language for IBM-PC-type personal computers running DOS-like operating systems.
There are other Clipper implementations, that have varying capabilities and run on platforms other than MS-DOS.
Q: Isn’t Clipper obsolete?
A: Clipper, the commercial compiler for DOS ? Well, it’s definitely stopped evolving; the owner company has announced that 5.3 will be the last significant release and only maintenance patches will be forthcoming.
There is a lot of maintenance work for good Clipper programmers. And when you do write that occasional new DOS program (some of us still do!), Clipper is an outstanding choice. But for most programmers in business today, yeah, there are really not too many applications that you would write from scratch with Clipper.
Clipper, the language? Definitely not obsolete. Clipper clones, improvements, and adaptations; commercial or not, are everywhere.
Note : Gathered from here.