C5 Pre-processor Directives

#command | #translate :

Specify a user-defined command or translation directive

#command <matchPattern> => <resultPattern>
#translate <matchPattern> => <resultPattern>

#define :

Define a manifest constant or pseudofunction

#define <idConstant> [<resultText>]
#define <idFunction>([<arg list>]) [<exp>]

#error :

Generate a compiler error and display a message

#error [<messageText>]

#ifdef :

Compile a section of code if an identifier is defined

#ifdef <identifier>
    <statements>...
[#else]
    <statements>...
#endif

#ifndef :

Compile a section of code if an identifier is undefined

#ifndef <identifier>
    <statements>...
[#else]
    <statements>...
#endif

#include :

Include a file into the current source file

#include "<otherSourceFileSpec>"

#stdout :

Send literal text to the standard output device

#stdout [<messageText>]

#undef :

Remove a #define macro definition

#undef <identifier>

#xcommand | #xtranslate :

Specify a user-defined command or translation directive

#xcommand <matchPattern> => <resultPattern>
#xtranslate <matchPattern> => <resultPattern>

C5 Operators

String : 

+ : Concatenate
- : Concatenate without intervening spaces

Mathematical : 

+ : Addition or Unary Positive
- : Subtraction or Unary Negative
* : Multiplication
/ : Division
% : Modulus--binary 
** or ^ : Exponentiation

Relational : 

<      : Less than
>      : Greater than
=     : Equal
==  : Exactly equal for character; equal for other data types
<>, #, or !=  : Not equal
<=   :  Less than or equal
>=   : Greater than or equal
$     : Is contained in the set or is a subset of  (Substring comparison)

Logical : 

.AND. : Logical and
.OR.  : Logical or
.NOT. or ! : Logical negate

Assignment :

=  : Assign
:= : Inline assign
+= : Inline add (or concatenate) and assign
-= : Inline subtract (or concatenate) and assign
*= : Inline multiply and assign
/= : Inline divide and assign
^= : Inline exponentiate and assign
%= : Inline modulus and assign

Increment and Decrement :

++ : Prefix or postfix increment
-- : Prefix or postfix decrement

Special : 

:: : Send a message to an object
() : Function or grouping
[] : Array element
{} : Constant array definition
-> : Alias identifier
&  : Compile and execute (Macro evaluation--unary)
@  : Pass by reference

C5 Index Commands and Functions

Index Commands and Functions

Commands :

DELETE TAG :

Delete a Tag

DELETE TAG <cOrderName> [IN <xcOrderBagName>]
    [, <cOrderName> [IN xcOrderBagName] list>]

INDEX ON … :

Create an index file

INDEX ON <expKey>
    [TAG <cOrderName>]
    TO <xcOrderBagName>
    [FOR <lCondition>] [ALL]
    [WHILE <lCondition>]
    [NEXT <nNumber>]
    [RECORD <nRecord>]
    [REST]
    [EVAL <bBlock>
    [EVERY <nInterval>]
    [UNIQUE]
    [ASCENDING|DESCENDING]

REINDEX :

Rebuild open indexes in the current workarea

REINDEX
    [EVAL <lCondition>]
    [EVERY <nRecords>]]

SET INDEX

Open index file(s) in the current work area

SET INDEX TO [<xcIndex list>]

SET ORDER

Set a new controlling index

SET ORDER TO [<nOrder> | [TAG <cOrderName>]
    [IN <xcOrderBagName>]]>

SET UNIQUE* : 

Toggle the inclusion of nonunique keys into an index

SET UNIQUE on | OFF | <xlToggle>

Functions :

DBCLEARINDEX() :

Close all indexes for the current work area

DBCLEARINDEX() --> NIL

DBCREATEINDEX() :

Create an index file

DBCREATEINDEX( <cIndexName>, <cKeyExpr>,
    <bKeyExpr>, 
    [<lUnique>] ) --> NIL

DBREINDEX() : 

Recreate all active indexes for the current work area

DBREINDEX() --> NIL

DBSEEK() : 

Move to the record having the specified key value

DBSEEK( <expKey>, [<lSoftSeek>] ) --> lFound

DBSETINDEX() : 

Open an index for the current work area

 DBSETINDEX( <cIndexName> ) --> NIL
 DBSETINDEX( <cOrderBagName> ) --> NIL

DBSETORDER() : 

Set the controlling order for the current work area

DBSETORDER( <nOrderNum> ) --> NIL

DESCEND() : 

Return a descending index key value

DESCEND( <exp> ) --> ValueInverted

FOUND() : 

Determine if the previous search operation succeeded

FOUND() --> lSuccess

INDEXEXT() : 

Return the default index extension

INDEXEXT() --> cExtension

INDEXKEY() : 

Return the key expression of a specified index

INDEXKEY( <nOrder> ) --> cKeyExp

INDEXORD() : 

Return the order position of the controlling index

INDEXORD() --> nOrder

ORDBAGEXT() :

Return the default Order Bag RDD extension

ORDBAGEXT() --> cBagExt

ORDBAGNAME() :

Return the Order Bag name of a specific Order

ORDBAGNAME(<nOrder> | <cOrderName>) --> cOrderBagName

ORDCOND()

Specify conditions for ordering

ORDCOND([FOR <lCondition>]
             [ALL] [WHILE <;lCondition>]
             [EVAL <bBlock> [EVERY <nInterval>]]
             [RECORD <nRecord>] [NEXT <nNumber>]
             [REST] [DESCENDING])

ORDCONDSET()

Set the condition and scope for an order

     ORDCONDSET([<cForCondition>],
        [<bForCondition>],
        [<lAll>],
        [<bWhileCondition>],
        [<bEval>],
        [<nInterval>],
        [<nStart>],
        [<nNext>],
        [<nRecord>],
        [<lRest>],
        [<lDescend>],
        [<lAdditive>],
        [<lCurrent>],
        [<lCustom>],
        [<lNoOptimize>]) --> lSuccess

ORDCREATE():

Create an Order in an Order Bag

ORDCREATE(<cOrderBagName>,[<cOrderName>], <cExpKey>,

    [<bExpKey>], [<lUnique>]) --> NIL

ORDDESCEND()

Return and optionally change the descending flag of an order

ORDDESCEND([<cOrder> | <nPosition>],[<cIndexFile>],
            [<lNewDescend>]) --> lCurrentDescend

ORDDESTROY() :

Remove a specified Order from an Order Bag

ORDDESTROY(<cOrderName> [, <cOrderBagName> ]) --> NIL

ORDFOR() :

Return the FOR expression of an Order

ORDFOR(<cOrderName> | <nOrder>
    [, <cOrderBagName>]) --> cForExp

ORDISUNIQUE()

          Return the status of the unique flag for a given order

    ORDISUNIQUE([<cOrder> | <nPosition>],
        [<cIndexFile>]) --> lUnique

ORDKEY() :

Return the Key expression of an Order

ORDKEY(<cOrderName> | <nOrder>
 [, <cOrderBagName>]) --> cExpKey

ORDKEYADD()

Add a key to a custom built order

         ORDKEYADD([<cOrder> | <nPosition>],
            [<cIndexFile>],[<expKeyValue>]) --> lSuccess

 

ORDKEYCOUNT()

Return the number of keys in an order

         ORDKEYCOUNT([<cOrder> | <nPosition>],
              [<cIndexFile>]) --> nKeys

ORDKEYDEL()

Delete a key from a custom built order

        ORDKEYDEL([<cOrder> | <nPosition>],
            [<cIndexFile>],
            [<expKeyValue>]) --> lSuccess

ORDKEYGOTO()

Move to a record specified by its logical record number

ORDKEYGOTO(<nKeyNo>) --> lSuccess

ORDKEYNO()

 Get the logical record number of the current record

         ORDKEYNO([<cOrder> | <nPosition>],
             [<cIndexFile>]) --> nKeyNo

 ORDKEYVAL()

Get key value of the current record from controlling order

ORDKEYVAL() --> xKeyValue

 

ORDLISTADD() :

Add Order Bag contents or single Order to the Order List

ORDLISTADD(<cOrderBagName>
    [, <cOrderName>]) --> NIL

ORDLISTCLEAR() :

Clear the current Order List

ORDLISTCLEAR() --> NIL

ORDLISTREBUILD() :

Rebuild all Orders in the Order List of the current work area

ORDLISTREBUILD() --> NIL

ORDNAME() :

Return the name of an Order in the work area

ORDNAME(<nOrder>[,<cOrderBagName>])
    --> cOrderName

ORDNUMBER() :

Return the position of an Order in the current Order List

ORDNUMBER(<cOrderName>[, <cOrderBagName>]) --> nOrderNo

 ORDSCOPE()

Set or clear the boundaries for scoping key values

ORDSCOPE(<nScope>, [<expNewValue>]) --> uCurrentValue

ORDSETFOCUS() :

Set focus to an Order in an Order List

ORDSETFOCUS([<cOrderName> | <nOrder>]
    [,<cOrderBagName>]) --> cPrevOrderNameInFocus

ORDSETRELAT()

Relate a specified work area to the current work area

    ORDSETRELATION(<nArea> | <cAlias>,<bKey>, [<cKey>])

             --> NIL

ORDSKIPUNIQUE()

Move record pointer to the next or previous unique key

ORDSKIPUNIQUE([<nDirection>]) –> lSuccess

C5 Database Functions

AFIELDS() :

Fill arrays with the structure of the current database file

AFIELDS([<aFieldNames>],
    [<aTypes>],
    [<aWidths>],
    [<aDecimals>]) --> nFields

ALIAS() : 

Return a specified work area alias

ALIAS([<nWorkArea>]) --> cAlias

BOF() : 

Determine when beginning of file is encountered

BOF() --> lBoundary

DBAPPEND() : 

Add a new record

DBAPPEND() --> NIL

DBCLEARFILTER() : 

Clear a filter condition

    DBCLEARFILTER() –> NIL

DBCLEARIND() :  Close all indexes for the current work area

    DBCLEARINDEX() --> NIL

DBCLEARREL() : 

Clear active relations

DBCLEARRELATION() --> NIL

DBCLOSEALL() : 

Close all occupied workareas

DBCLOSEALL() --> NIL

DBCLOSEAREA() : 

Close a workarea

DBCLOSEAREA() --> NIL

DBCOMMIT() : 

Flush pending updates

DBCOMMIT() --> NIL

DBCOMMITALL() : 

Flush pending updates in all workareas

DBCOMMITALL() --> NIL

DBCREATE() : 

Create a database file from a database structure array

DBCREATE(<cDatabase>, <aStruct> [, <cDriver> ] ) --> NIL

DBCREATEIND() : 

Create an Index

   DBCREATEINDEX(<cIndexName>, <cKeyExpr>,
        [<bKeyExpr>], [<lUnique>]) --> NIL

DBDELETE() : 

Mark a record for deletion

DBDELETE() --> NIL

DBEDIT() : 

        Browse records in a table layout

    DBEDIT([<nTop>], [<nLeft>],
        [<nBottom>], <nRight>],
        [<acColumns>],
        [<cUserFunction>],
        [<acColumnSayPictures> | <cColumnSayPicture>],
        [<acColumnHeaders> | <cColumnHeader>],
        [<acHeadingSeparators> | <cHeadingSeparator>],
        [<acColumnSeparators> | <cColumnSeparator>],
        [<acFootingSeparators> | <cFootingSeparator>],
        [<acColumnFootings> | <cColumnFooting>]) --> NIL

DBEVAL() : 

Evaluate a code block for each record

DBEVAL(<bBlock>,
    [<bForCondition>],
    [<bWhileCondition>],
    [<nNextRecords>],
    [<nRecord>],
    [<lRest>]) --> NIL

DBF()* : 

Return current alias name

DBF() --> cAlias

DBFIELDINFO() : 

Return and optionally change information about a field

   DBFIELDINFO(<nInfoType>,

        <nFieldPos>,
        [<expNewSetting>]) --> uCurrentSetting

DBFILEGET() : 

Insert the contents of a field into a file

     DBFILEGET(<nFieldPos>, <cTargetFile>, <nMode>)
        --> lSuccess

DBFILEPUT() : 

Insert the contents of a file into a field

     DBFILEPUT(<nFieldPos>, <cSourceFile>)
        --> lSuccess

 DBFILTER() : 

Return the current filter expression as a character string

DBFILTER() --> cFilter

DBGOBOTTOM() : 

Move to the last logical record

DBGOBOTTOM() --> NIL

DBGOTO() : 

Move to a particular record

DBGOTO(<nRecordNumber>) --> NIL

DBGOTOP() : 

Move to the first logical record

DBGOTOP() --> NIL

DBINFO() : 

         Return and optionally change database file information

    DBINFO(<nInfoType>, [<expNewSetting>])
        --> uCurrentSetting

DBORDERINFO() :          Return and optionally change information about orders and index files

    DBORDERINFO(<nInfoType>,   [<cIndexFile>],
        [<cOrder> | <nPosition>],
        [<expNewSetting>]) --> uCurrentSetting

DBRECALL() : 

Reinstate a record marked for deletion

DBRECALL() --> NIL

DBRECORDINFO() :

         Return and optionally change information about a record

    DBRECORDINFO(<nInfoType>,
        [<nRecord>],
        [<expNewSetting>]) --> uCurrentSetting

DBREINDEX() :

         Recreate all active indexes for the current work area

    DBREINDEX() --> NIL

DBRELATION() :

Return the linking expression of a specified relation

DBRELATION( <nRelation> ) --> cLinkExp

DBRLOCK() :      

         Lock the record at the current or specified identity

    DBRLOCK([<xIdentity>]) --> lSuccess

DBRLOCKLIST()          Return an array of the current lock list

   DBRLOCKLIST() --> aRecordLocks

DBRSELECT() :

Return the target workarea number of a relation

DBRSELECT( <nRelation> ) --> nWorkArea

DBRUNLOCK()    

          Release all or specified record locks

    DBRUNLOCK([<xIdentity>]) --> NIL

DBSEEK() : 

Search for a key value

DBSEEK(<expKey>, [<lSoftSeek>]) --> lFound

DBSELECTAR() : 

Change the current workarea

DBSELECTAREA(<nArea> | <cAlias>) --> NIL

DBSETDRIVER() : 

Set the default database driver

DBSETDRIVER([<cDriver>]) --> cCurrentDriver

DBSETFILTER() : 

Set a filter condition

DBSETFILTER(<bCondition>, [<cCondition>]) --> NIL

DBSETINDEX()    

         Empty orders from an order bag into the order list

    DBSETINDEX(<cOrderBagName>) --> NIL

DBSETORDER()

Set the controlling order

    DBSETORDER(<nOrderNum>) --> NIL

DBSETRELAT() :

Relate two workareas

DBSETRELATION( <nArea> | <cAlias>, <bExpr>, [<cExpr>]) --> NIL

DBSKIP() : 

Move relative to the current record

DBSKIP([<nRecords>]) --> NIL

DBSTRUCT() : 

Create an array containing the structure of a database file

DBSTRUCT() --> aStruct

DBUNLOCK()

Release all locks for the current work area

    DBUNLOCK() --> NIL

DBUNLOCKALL()

Release all locks for all work areas

    DBUNLOCKALL() --> NIL

DBUSEAREA() : 

Use a database file in a workarea

DBUSEAREA( [<lNewArea>],
    [<cDriver>],
    <cName>,
    [<xcAlias>],
    [<lShared>],
    [<lReadonly>]) --> NIL

DELETED() : 

Return the deleted status of the current record

DELETED() --> lDeleted

EOF() : 

Determine when end of file is encountered

EOF() --> lBoundary

FCOUNT() : 

Return the number of fields in the current (.dbf) file

FCOUNT() --> nFields

FIELD() : 

Return a field name from the current (.dbf) file

    FIELD/FIELD(<nPosition>) --> cFieldName

FIELDBLOCK() :

Return a set-get code block for a field variable

FIELDBLOCK(<cFieldName>) --> bFieldBlock

FIELDGET() : 

Retrieve the value of a field using the ordinal position of the field in the database structure

FIELDGET(<nField>) --> ValueField

FIELDNAME() : 

Return a field name from the current (.dbf) file

FIELDNAME/FIELD(<nPosition>) --> cFieldName

FIELDPOS() : 

Return the position of a field in a workarea

FIELDPOS(<cFieldName>) --> nFieldPos

FIELDPUT() : 

Set the value of a field variable using the ordinal position of the field in the database structure

FIELDPUT(<nField>, <expAssign>) --> ValueAssigned

FIELDWBLOCK() : 

Return a set-get block for a field in a given workarea

FIELDWBLOCK(<cFieldName>, <nWorkArea>) --> bFieldWBlock

FLOCK() : 

Lock an open and shared database file

    FLOCK() –> lSuccess

FOUND() : 

Determine if the previous search operation succeeded

FOUND() --> lSuccess

HEADER() : 

Return the current database file header length

HEADER() --> nBytes

LASTREC() : 

Determine the number of records in the current (.dbf) file

LASTREC() | RECCOUNT()* --> nRecords

LUPDATE() : 

Return the last modification date of a (.dbf) file

LUPDATE() --> dModification

RECCOUNT()* : 

Determine the number of records in the current (.dbf) file

RECCOUNT()* | LASTREC() --> nRecords

RECNO() : 

Return the current record number of a work area

RECNO() --> nRecord

RECSIZE() : 

Determine the record length of a database (.dbf) file

RECSIZE() --> nBytes

RLOCK()

Lock the current record in the active work area

    RLOCK() --> lSuccess

SELECT() : 

Determine the work area number of a specified alias

SELECT([<cAlias>]) --> nWorkArea

USED() : 

Determine if a database file is in USE

USED() --> lDbfOpen

C5 Database Commands

Database Commands and Statements

APPEND BLANK

Add a new record to current database file.

APPEND BLANK

APPEND FROM :

Import records from a (.dbf) or ASCII file

APPEND FROM <xcFile>
     [FIELDS <idField list>]
     [<scope>] 
     [WHILE <lCondition>] 
     [FOR <lCondition>]
     [SDF | DELIMITED [WITH BLANK | <xcDelimiter>] |
     [VIA <xcDriver>]]

AVERAGE :

Average numeric expressions in the current work area

AVERAGE <nExp list> TO <idVar list> 
     [<scope>] 
     [WHILE <lCondition>] 
     [FOR <lCondition>]

CLEAR ALL* :

Close files and release public and private variables.

CLEAR ALL

CLOSE :

Close a specific set of files

CLOSE [<idAlias> | ALL | ALTERNATE | DATABASES | FORMAT |INDEXES ]

COMMIT :

Perform a solid-disk write for all active work areas

COMMIT

CONTINUE :

Resume a pending LOCATE

CONTINUE

COPY STRUCTURE :

Copy the current (.dbf) structure to a new (.dbf) file

COPY STRUCTURE [FIELDS <idField list>] TO <xcDatabase>

COPY STRUCTURE EXTENDED :

Copy field definitions to a (.dbf) file

COPY STRUCTURE EXTENDED TO <xcExtendedDatabase>

COPY TO :

Export records to a new (.dbf) or ASCII file

COPY [FIELDS <idField list>] TO <xcFile>
     [<scope>] 
     [WHILE <lCondition>] 
     [FOR <lCondition>]
     [SDF | DELIMITED [WITH BLANK | <xcDelimiter>] |
     [VIA <xcDriver>]]

COUNT :

Tally records to a variable

COUNT TO <idVar>
     [<scope>] 
     [WHILE <lCondition>] 
     [FOR <lCondition>]

CREATE :

Create an empty structure extended (.dbf) file

CREATE <xcExtendedDatabase>

CREATE FROM :

Create a new (.dbf) file from a structure extended file

CREATE <xcDatabase> 
    FROM <xcExtendedDatabase> 
    [NEW]
    [ALIAS <xcAlias>] 
    [VIA <cDriver>]

DELETE :

Mark records for deletion

DELETE [<scope>] 
    [WHILE <lCondition>]
    [FOR <lCondition>]

FIELD :

Declare database field names

FIELD <idField list> [IN <idAlias>]

FIND* :

Search an index for a specified key value

FIND <xcSearchString>

GO :

Move the record pointer to a specific record

GO[TO] <nRecord> | BOTTOM | TOP

JOIN :

Merge two (.dbf) files to create a new (.dbf) file

JOIN WITH <xcAlias> TO <xcDatabase>
     FOR <lCondition> 
     [FIELDS <idField list>]

LOCATE :

Search sequentially for a record matching a condition

LOCATE [<scope>] 
    FOR <lCondition>
    [WHILE <lCondition>]

PACK :

Remove deleted records from a database file

PACK

RECALL :

Restore records marked for deletion

RECALL [<scope>] 
     [WHILE <lCondition>]
     [FOR <lCondition>]

REPLACE :

Assign new values to field variables

REPLACE <idField> WITH <exp>
    [, <idField2> WITH <exp2>...]
    [<scope>] 
    [WHILE <lCondition>] 
    [FOR <lCondition>]

SEEK :

Search an index for a specified key value

SEEK <expSearch>

SELECT :

Change the current work area

SELECT <xnWorkArea> | <idAlias>

SET DELETED :

Toggle filtering of deleted records

SET DELETED on | OFF | <xlToggle>

SET EXCLUSIVE :

Establish shared or exclusive USE of database files

SET EXCLUSIVE ON | off | <xlToggle>

SET FILTER :

Hide records not meeting a condition

SET FILTER TO [<lCondition>]

SET  MEMOBLOCK :

     Change the block size for memo files

     SET MEMOBLOCK TO <nSize>

SET PATH :

Specify the search path for opening files

SET PATH TO [<xcPathspec list>]

SET RELATION :

Relate two work areas by a key value or record number

SET RELATION TO [<expKey> | <nRecord> INTO <xcAlias>]
    [, [TO] <expKey2> | <nRecord2> INTO <xcAlias2>...]
    [ADDITIVE]

SET SOFTSEEK :

Toggle relative SEEKing

SET SOFTSEEK on | OFF | <xlToggle>

SET UNIQUE :

Toggle the inclusion of nonunique keys into an index

SET UNIQUE on | OFF | <xlToggle>

SKIP :

Move the record pointer to a new position

SKIP [<nRecords>] [ALIAS <idAlias> | <nWorkArea>]

SORT :

Copy to a (.dbf) file in sorted order

SORT TO <xcDatabase> ON <idField> [/[A | D][C]]
    [, <idField2> [/[A | D][C]]...]
    [<scope>] 
    [WHILE <lCondition>] 
    [FOR <lCondition>]

SUM :

Sum numeric expressions to variables

SUM <nExp list> TO <idVar list>
    [<scope>] 
    [WHILE <lCondition>] 
    [FOR <lCondition>]

TOTAL

Summarize records by key value to a (.dbf) file

TOTAL ON <expKey> FIELDS <idField list>
    TO <xcDatabase>
    [<scope>] 
    [WHILE <lCondition>] 
    [FOR <lCondition>]

UNLOCK :

Release file/record locks set by the current user

     UNLOCK [ALL]

UPDATE : 

Update current database file from another database file

UPDATE FROM <xcAlias>
   ON <expKey> [RANDOM]
   REPLACE <idField> WITH <exp>
   [, <idField2> WITH <exp2>...]

USE

Open an existing (.dbf) and its associated files

USE [<xcDatabase>
    [INDEX <xcIndex list>]
    [ALIAS <xcAlias>] 
    [EXCLUSIVE | SHARED]
    [NEW] [READONLY]
    [VIA <cDriver>]]

ZAP

Remove all records from the current database file

ZAP

Clipper 5.x RG Summary Introduction

This is a summary of reference guide for Clipper Language, grouped by category.

For more detailed guide please refer Documentation section under links page.

Items ( command, function, statement, class … ) denoted by an asterisk immediately after the name are obsolete. These are compatibility items, superseded by another item, and not recommended using furthermore; instead new items recommended. Here the list :

Obsolete Language Items

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Obsolete              | Recommended
                       |
 ADIR() function       | DIRECTORY() function
 AFIELDS() function    | DBSTRUCT() function
 CALL command          | Extend API
 CANCEL command        | QUIT command
 CLEAR ALL command     | CLOSE or RELEASE command
 DBEDIT() function     | TBrowse class
 DBF() function        | ALIAS() function
 DECLARE statement     | PRIVATE statement
 DIR command           | DIRECTORY() function
 DO statement          | Use function-calling syntax
 EXTERNAL statement    | REQUEST statement
 FIND command          | SEEK command
 FKLABEL() function    | Use constant value Fn where n ranges from one to 40
 FKMAX() function      | Use constant value of 40
 MOD() function        | Modulus operator (%)
 NOTE command          | C-style comment indicators, /*...*/ and //
 READKEY() function    | LASTKEY() function
 RECCOUNT() function   | LASTREC() function
 RESTORE SCREEN command| RESTSCREEN() function
 SAVE SCREEN command   | SAVESCREEN() function
 SET COLOR command     | SETCOLOR() function
 SET EXACT command     | Not recommended
 SET EXCLUSIVE command | USE command with EXCLUSIVE and SHARED clauses
 SET FORMAT command    | Not recommended
 SET PROCEDURE command | Compiler script files (.clp)
 SET UNIQUE command    | INDEX command with UNIQUE clause
 STORE command         | Inline assignment operator (:=)
 TEXT command          | ? or @...SAY command
 WAIT command          | @...GET...READ command or INKEY() function
 WORD() function       | Extend API

Furthermore some Clipper Language items may be changed ( by meaning or function ) by next versions or next generation dialects. Please attention this point and refer to newer documentations when necessary.