Hash Basics

Definition:

In general, a Hash Table, or Hash Array, or Associative array, or shortly Hash is an array- like data structure, to store some data with an associated key for each; so, ‘atom’ of a hash is a pair of a ‘key’ with a ‘value’. A hash system needs to perform at least three operations:

–      add a new pair,

–      access to value via key

–      the search and delete operations on a key pair

In Harbour, a hash is simply a special array, or more precisely a “keyed” array with special syntax with a set of functions.

Building:

The “=>” operator can be used to indicate literally the relation between <key> <value> pair: <key> => <value>

 We can define and initialize a hash by this “literal” way :

 hDigits_1 := { 1 => 1, 2  => 2, 3  => 3, 4  => 4 }

 or by a special function call:

 hDigits_1 := HB_HASH( 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4 )

 Using “add” method may be another way :

hDigits_1 := { => } // Build an empty hash
hDigits_1[ 1] := 1

hDigits_1[ 2] := 2

hDigits_1[ 3] := 3

hDigits_1[ 4] := 4

In this method while evaluating each of above assignments, if given key exits in hash, will be replaced its value; else add a new pair to the hash.

In addition, data can be added to a hash by extended “+=” operator:

   hCountries := { 'Argentina' => "Buenos Aires" }
   hCountries += { 'Brasil'    => "Brasilia" }
   hCountries += { 'Chile'     => "Santiago" }
   hCountries += { 'Mexico'    => "Mexico City" }

Hashs may add ( concatenate ) each other by extended “+” sign :

   hFruits := { "fruits" => { "apple", "chery", "apricot" } }
   hDays   := { "days"   => { "sunday", "monday" } } 
   hDoris := hFruits + hDays

Note:  This “+” and “+=” operators depends xHB lib and needs to xHB lib and xHB.ch.

Typing :

<key> part of a hash may be any legal scalar type : C, D, L, N; and <value> part may be in addition scalar types, any complex type ( array or hash ).

Correction : This definition is wrong ! The correct is :

<key> entry key; can be of type: number, date, datetime, string, pointer.

Corrected at : 2015.12.08; thanks to Marek.

hDigits_2 := {  1  => “One”,  2  => “Two”,  3  => “Three”,  4  => “Four” }

hDigits_3 := { "1" => "One", "2" => "Two", "3" => "Three", "4" => "Four" }
hDigits_4 := { "1" => "One",  2  => "Two",  3  => "Three", "4" => "Four" }
hDigits_5 := {  1  => "One",  1  => "Two",  3  => "Three",  4  => "Four"

All of these examples are legal. As a result, a pair record of a hash may be:

–      Numeric key, numeric value ( hDigits_1 )

–      Numeric key, character value ( hDigits_2 )

–      Character key, character value ( hDigits_3 )

–      Mixed type key ( hDigits_4 )

Duplicate keys (as seen in hDigits_5) is permitted to assign, but not give a result such as double keyed values: LEN( hDigits_5 ) is 3, not 4; because first pair replaced by second due to has same key.

Consider a table-like data for customers records with two character fields: Customer ID and customer name:

Cust_ID Cust_Name
CC001 Pierce Firth
CC002 Stellan Taylor
CC003 Chris Cherry
CC004 Amanda Baranski

We can build a hash with this data :

  hCustomers := { "CC001" => "Pierce Firth",;
 "CC002" => "Stellan Taylor",;
 "CC003" => "Chris Cherry",;
 "CC004" => "Amanda Baranski" }

and list it:

   ?
   ? "Listing a hash :"
   ?
   h1Record := NIL
   FOR EACH h1Record IN hCustomers
      ? cLMarj, h1Record:__ENUMKEY(), h1Record:__ENUMVALUE()
   NEXT

 Accessing a specific record is easy :

 hCustomers[ "CC003" ] // Chris Cherry
*-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.
/*
Hash Basics

*/
#include "xhb.ch"
#define NTrim( n ) LTRIM( STR( n ) )
PROCEDURE Main()
 SET DATE GERM
 SET CENT ON
 SET COLO TO "W/B"

 cLMarj := SPACE( 3 )

 CLS

 hDigits_1 := { => } // Build an empty hash

 hDigits_1[ 1 ] := 1
 hDigits_1[ 2 ] := 2
 hDigits_1[ 3 ] := 3
 hDigits_1[ 4 ] := 4

 ListHash( hDigits_1, "Digits_1" )

 hDigits_2 := HB_HASH( 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4 )

 ListHash( hDigits_2, "Digits_2" )

 hDigits_3 := { 1 => 1,;
 2 => 2,;
 3 => 3,;
 4 => 4 }
 ListHash( hDigits_3, "Digits_3" )

 hDigits_4 := { 1 => "One",;
 2 => "Two",;
 3 => "Three",;
 4 => "Four" }
ListHash( hDigits_4, "Digits_4" )

 hDigits_5 := { "1" => "One",;
 "2" => "Two",;
 "3" => "Three",;
 "4" => "Four" }
 ListHash( hDigits_5, "Digits_5" )

 hDigits_6 := { "1" => "One",;
 2 => "Two",;
 3 => "Three",;
 "4" => "Four" }
 ListHash( hDigits_6, "Digits_6" )

 hDigits_7 := { 1 => "One",;
 1 => "Two",; // This line replace to previous due to same key 
 3 => "Three",;
 4 => "Four" }
 ListHash( hDigits_7, "Digits_7" )

 * WAIT "EOF digits"

 hCustomers := { "CC001" => "Pierce Firth",;
 "CC002" => "Stellan Taylor",;
 "CC003" => "Chris Cherry",;
 "CC004" => "Amanda Baranski" }
 ListHash( hCustomers, "A hash defined and initialized literally" )
 ?
 ? "Hash value with a specific key (CC003) :", hCustomers[ "CC003" ] // Chris Cherry
 ?
 cKey := "CC003" 
 ?
 ? "Locating a specific record in an hash by key (", cKey, ":"
 ?
 c1Data := hCustomers[ cKey ]
 ? cLMarj, c1Data

 hCountries := { 'Argentina' => "Buenos Aires" }
 hCountries += { 'Brasil' => "Brasilia" }
 hCountries += { 'Chile' => "Santiago" }
 hCountries += { 'Mexico' => "Mexico City" }

 ListHash( hCountries, "A hash defined and initialized by adding with '+=' operator:" )

 hFruits := { "fruits" => { "apple", "chery", "apricot" } }
 hDays := { "days" => { "sunday", "monday" } } 

 hDoris := hFruits + hDays

 ListHash( hDoris, "A hash defined and initialized by concataned two hash with '+' operator:" )

 ?
 @ MAXROW(), 0
 WAIT "EOF HashBasics.prg"

RETURN // HashBasics.Main()
*-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.
PROCEDURE ListHash( hHash, cComment )

 LOCAL x1Pair := NIL

 cComment := IF( HB_ISNIL( cComment ), '', cComment )

 ? 
 ? cComment, "-- Type :", VALTYPE( hHash ), "size:", NTrim ( LEN( hHash ) ) 
 ?
 FOR EACH x1Pair IN hHash
    nIndex := x1Pair:__ENUMINDEX()
    x1Key := x1Pair:__ENUMKEY()
    x1Value := x1Pair:__ENUMVALUE()
    ? cLMarj, NTrim( nIndex ) 
*   ?? '', VALTYPE( x1Pair )
    ?? '', x1Key, "=>"
*   ?? '', VALTYPE( x1Key ) 
*   ?? VALTYPE( x1Value ) 
    IF HB_ISARRAY( x1Value ) 
       AEVAL( x1Value, { | x1 | QQOUT( '', x1 ) } )
    ELSE 
       ?? '', x1Value
    ENDIF 
 NEXT

RETURN // ListHash()
*-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.

HashBass
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