Tools – Numbers/Bit Manipulation

BITTOC()     Converts position-dependent bits into characters
CELSIUS()    Converts a Fahrenheit temperature value into Celsius
CLEARBIT()   Clears one or more bits within a number to zero
CTOBIT()     Converts a character string into a bit pattern
CTOF()       Converts a special 8-byte string into a floating point number
CTON()       Converts a numeric string into a different base
EXPONENT()   Determines the exponent of a floating point number (base 2)
FAHRENHEIT() Converts a temperature value from Celsius into Fahrenheit
FTOC()       Converts a floating point number into a special 8-byte string
INFINITY()   Creates the largest number possible (21023)
INTNEG()     Converts an unsigned integer into a signed integer
INTPOS()     Converts a signed integer into an unsigned integer
ISBIT()      Tests the bits in a number
LTON()       Converts a logical value into a numeric value
MANTISSA()   Determines the mantissa of a floating point number (base2)
NTOC()       Converts numbers in a digit string into a different number base
NUMAND()     Performs a 16-bit "AND" of a list of numbers
NUMCOUNT()   Uses the internal CA-Clipper Tools counter
NUMHIGH()    Returns the higher value byte in a 16-bit number
NUMLOW()     Returns the lower value byte in a 16-bit number
NUMMIRR()    Mirrors 8-bit or 16-bit values
NUMNOT()     Performs a 16-bit "NOT" of a number
NUMOR()      Performs a 16-bit "OR" of a list of numbers
NUMROL()     Performs a 16-bit left rotation of a number
NUMXOR()     Performs a 16-bit "XOR" of two numbers
RAND()       Generates random numbers
RANDOM()     Generates random numbers
SETBIT()     Sets one or more bits in a number

Tools – String Manipulations

ADDASCII()   Adds a value to each ASCII code in a string
AFTERATNUM() Returns remainder of a string after nth appearance of sequence
ASCIISUM()   Finds sum of the ASCII values of all the characters of a string
ASCPOS()     Determines ASCII value of a character at a position in a string
ATADJUST()   Adjusts the beginning position of a sequence within a string
ATNUM()      Determines the starting position of a sequence within a string
ATREPL()     Searches for a sequence within a string and replaces it
ATTOKEN()    Finds the position of a token within a string
BEFORATNUM() Returns string segment before the nth occurrence of a sequence
CENTER()     Centers a string using pad characters
CHARADD()    Adds the corresponding ASCII codes of two strings
CHARAND()    Links corresponding ASCII codes of paired strings with AND
CHAREVEN()   Returns characters in the even positions of a string
CHARLIST()   Lists each character in a string
CHARMIRR()   Mirrors characters within a string
CHARMIX()    Mixes two strings together
CHARNOLIST() Lists the characters that do not appear in a string
CHARNOT()    Complements each character in a string
CHARODD()    Returns characters in the odd positions of a string
CHARONE()    Reduces adjoining duplicate characters in string to 1 character
CHARONLY()   Determines the common denominator between two strings
CHAROR()     Joins the corresponding ASCII code of paired strings with OR
CHARPACK()   Compresses (packs) a string
CHARRELA()   Correlates the character positions in paired strings
CHARRELREP() Replaces characters in a string depending on their correlation
CHARREM()    Removes particular characters from a string
CHARREPL()   Replaces certain characters with others
CHARSORT()   Sorts sequences within a string
CHARSPREAD() Expands a string at the tokens
CHARSWAP()   Exchanges all adjoining characters in a string
CHARUNPACK() Decompresses (unpacks) a string
CHARXOR()    Joins ASCII codes of paired strings with exclusive OR operation
CHECKSUM()   Calculates the checksum for a character string (algorithm)
COUNTLEFT()  Counts a particular character at the beginning of a string
COUNTRIGHT() Counts a particular character at the end of a string
CRYPT()      Encrypts and decrypts a string
CSETATMUPA() Determines setting of the multi-pass mode for ATXXX() functions
CSETREF()    Determines whether reference sensitive functions return a value
EXPAND()     Expands a string by inserting characters
JUSTLEFT()   Moves characters from the beginning to the end of a string
JUSTRIGHT()  Moves characters from the end of a string to the beginning
LIKE()       Compares character strings using wildcard characters
LTOC()       Converts a logical value into a character
MAXLINE()    Finds the longest line within a string
NUMAT()      Counts the number of occurrences of a sequence within a string
NUMLINE()    Determines the number of lines required for string output
NUMTOKEN()   Determines the number of tokens in a string
PADLEFT()    Pads a string on the left to a particular length
PADRIGHT()   Pads a string on the right to a particular length
POSALPHA()   Determines position of first alphabetic character in a string
POSCHAR()    Replaces individual character at particular position in string
POSDEL()     Deletes characters at a particular position in a string
POSDIFF()    Finds the first position from which two strings differ
POSEQUAL()   Finds the first position at which two strings are the same
POSINS()     Inserts characters at a particular position within a string
POSLOWER()   Finds the position of the first lower case alphabetic character
POSRANGE()   Determines position of first character in an ASCII code range
POSREPL()    Replaces one or more characters from a certain position
POSUPPER()   Finds the position of the first uppercase, alphabetic character
RANGEREM()   Deletes characters that are within a specified ASCII code range
RANGEREPL()  Replaces characters within a specified ASCII code range
REMALL()     Removes characters from the beginning and end of a string
REMLEFT()    Removes particular characters from the beginning of a string
REMRIGHT()   Removes particular characters at the end of a string
REPLALL()    Exchanges characters at the beginning and end of a string
REPLLEFT()   Exchanges particular characters at the beginning of a string
REPLRIGHT()  Exchanges particular characters at the end of a string
RESTTOKEN()  Recreates an incremental tokenizer environment
SAVETOKEN()  Saves the incremental tokenizer environment to a variable
SETATLIKE()  Provides an additional search mode for all AT functions
STRDIFF()    Finds similarity between two strings (Levenshtein Distance)
STRSWAP()    Interchanges two strings
TABEXPAND()  Converts tabs to spaces
TABPACK()    Converts spaces in tabs
TOKEN()      Selects the nth token from a string
TOKENAT()    Determines the most recent TOKENNEXT() position within a string
TOKENEND()   Determines if more tokens are available in TOKENNEXT()
TOKENINIT()  Initializes a string for TOKENNEXT()
TOKENLOWER() Converts initial alphabetic character of a token into lowercase
TOKENNEXT()  Provides an incremental tokenizer
TOKENSEP()   Provides separator before/after most recently retrieved TOKEN()
TOKENUPPER() Converts the initial letter of a token into upper case
VALPOS()     Determines numerical value of character at particular position
WORDONE()    Reduces multiple appearances of double characters to one
WORDONLY()   Finds common denominator of 2 strings on double character basis
WORDREPL()   Replaces particular double characters with others
WORDSWAP()   Exchanges double characters lying beside each other in a string
WORDTOCHAR() Exchanges double characters for individual ones

Tools – Introduction


     Clipper Tools contains over 800 functions which you can use to
     develop Clipper applications and system-level routines.  These
     functions give Clipper programmers capabilities previously reserved
     for C or Assembler programmers with detailed system knowledge.

     In order to use working memory as economically as possible, virtually
     all the functions are written in Assembler and are highly optimized.
     This guarantees high speed with a minimal use of memory.  This
     efficiency is further supported by the modularity of the software within
     the Clipper Tools library.

     Almost all Clipper Tools functions included in Harbour libhbct library.


 Multiplication--binary                          (Mathematical)

     <nNumber1> * <nNumber2>




     <nNumber1> and <nNumber2> are the two numeric expressions to


     The multiplication operator (*) is a binary operator that returns a
     numeric value from its operation on <nNumber1> and <nNumber2>.


     .  This example shows multiplication results using different

        ?  3 *  0            // Result:  0
        ?  3 * -2            // Result: -6
        ? -3 *  2            // Result: -6
        ? -3 *  0            // Result:  0
        ? -1 *  3            // Result: -3
        ? -2 * -3            // Result:  6
        ?  2 * -3            // Result: -6
        ?  1 * -3            // Result: -3

See Also: % ** + – / = (compound) SET DECIMALS SET FIXED

( ) Function or grouping indicator

 ( )
 Function or grouping indicator                  (Special)

     Parentheses (()) in expressions group certain operations for readability
     or to force a particular evaluation order.  Parentheses also identify a
     function call.

     When specifying the grouping operator, the item that falls within the
     parentheses must be a valid expression.  Sub-expressions may be further

     For function calls, a valid function name must precede the left
     parenthesis, and the function arguments, if any, must be contained
     within the parentheses.


     .  This example changes the default order of expression

        ? 5 * (10 + 6) / 2         // Result: 40

     .  The next example shows a function call:

        x := SQRT(100)

See Also: &