Display or edit character strings and memo fields

        [<nTop>], [<nLeft>],
        [<nBottom>], [<nRight>],
        [<nWindowColumn>]) --> cTextBuffer


     <cString> is the character string or memo field to copy to the
     MEMOEDIT() text buffer.  If not specified, the text buffer is empty.

     <nTop>, <nLeft>, <nBottom>, and <nRight> are the
     upper-left and lower-right window coordinates.  Row values can range
     from zero to MAXROW(), and column positions can range from zero to
     MAXCOL().  If not specified, the default coordinates are 0, 0, MAXROW(),
     and MAXCOL().

     <lEditMode> determines whether the text buffer can be edited or
     merely displayed.  Specifying true (.T.) allows the user to make changes
     to the text buffer, while specifying false (.F.) only allows the user to
     browse the text buffer.  If not specified, the default value is true

     <cUserFunction> is the name of a user-defined function that executes
     when the user presses a key not recognized by MEMOEDIT() and when no
     keys are pending in the keyboard buffer.  <cUserFunction> is specified
     as a character value without parentheses or arguments.  Specifying false
     (.F.) for this argument displays <cString> and causes MEMOEDIT() to
     immediately terminate.  If this argument is specified, the automatic
     behavior of MEMOEDIT() changes.  Refer to the discussion below.

     <nLineLength> determines the length of lines displayed in the
     MEMOEDIT() window.  If a line is greater than <nLineLength>, it is word
     wrapped to the next line in the MEMOEDIT() window.  If <nLineLength> is
     greater than the number of columns in the MEMOEDIT() window, the window
     will scroll if the cursor moves past the window border.  If
     <nLineLength> is not specified, the default line length is (<nRight> -

     <nTabSize> determines the tab stops that will be used when the user
     presses Tab.  If <nTabSize> is not specified, tab stops will be placed
     at every four characters.

     <nTextBufferRow> and <nTextBufferColumn> define the display
     position of the cursor within the text buffer when MEMOEDIT() is
     invoked.  <nTextBufferRow> begins with one (1) and <nTextBufferColumn>
     begins with zero (0).  If these arguments are not specified, the cursor
     is placed at row one (1) and column zero (0) of the MEMOEDIT() window.

     <nWindowRow> and <nWindowColumn> define the initial position of
     the cursor within the MEMOEDIT() window.  Row and column positions begin
     with zero (0).  If these arguments are not specified, the initial window
     position is row zero (0) and the current cursor column position.


     MEMOEDIT() returns the text buffer if the user terminates editing with
     Ctrl+W or a copy of <cString> if user terminates with Esc.


     MEMOEDIT() is a user interface and general purpose text editing function
     that edits memo fields and long character strings.  Editing occurs
     within a specified window region placed anywhere on the screen.  Like
     the other user interface functions (ACHOICE() and DBEDIT()), MEMOEDIT()
     supports a number of different modes and includes a user function that
     allows key reconfiguration and other activities relevant to programming
     the current text editing task.

     .  The text buffer: When you invoke MEMOEDIT() and specify
        <cString>, it is copied to the text buffer.  The user actually edits
        the text buffer.  If the <cString> is not specified, the user is
        presented with an empty text buffer to edit.

        When the user exits MEMOEDIT() by pressing Ctrl+W, the contents of
        the text buffer are returned.  If the user exits by pressing  Esc,
        the text buffer is discarded and the original <cString> value is
        returned.  In either case, the return value can then be assigned to a
        variable or memo field, or passed as an argument to another function.

     .  Editing modes: MEMOEDIT() supports two editing modes depending
        on the value of <lEditMode>.  When <lEditMode> is true (.T.),
        MEMOEDIT() enters edit mode and the user can change the contents of
        the MEMOEDIT() text buffer.  When <lEditMode> is false (.F.),
        MEMOEDIT() enters browse mode and the user can only navigate about
        the text buffer but cannot edit or insert new text.  To make browsing
        easier for the user, the scrolling is disabled so Up arrow and Down
        arrow scroll the text buffer up or down one line within the
        MEMOEDIT() window.

     .  Entering and editing text: Within MEMOEDIT(), the user can
        enter and edit text by positioning the cursor, adding, or deleting
        characters.  To facilitate editing the text, there are a number of
        different navigation and editing keys:

        MEMOEDIT() Navigation and Editing Keys
        Key                      Action
        Up arrow/Ctrl+E          Move up one line
        Down arrow/Ctrl+X        Move down one line
        Left arrow/Ctrl+S        Move left one character
        Right arrow/Ctrl+D       Move right one character
        Ctrl+Left arrow/Ctrl+A   Move left one word
        Ctrl+Right arrow/Ctrl+F  Move right one word
        Home                     Move to beginning of current line
        End                      Move to end of current line
        Ctrl+Home                Move to beginning of current window
        Ctrl+End                 Move to end of current window
        PgUp                     Move to previous edit window
        PgDn                     Move to next edit window
        Ctrl+PgUp                Move to beginning of memo
        Ctrl+PgDn                Move to end of memo
        Return                   Move to beginning of next line
        Delete                   Delete character at cursor
        Backspace                Delete character to left of cursor
        Tab                      Insert tab character or spaces
        Printable characters     Insert character
        Ctrl+Y                   Delete the current line
        Ctrl+T                   Delete word right
        Ctrl+B                   Reform paragraph
        Ctrl+V/Ins               Toggle insert mode
        Ctrl+W                   Finish editing with save
        Esc                      Abort edit and return original

        When the user is entering text, there are two text entry modes,
        insert and overstrike.  When MEMOEDIT() is invoked, the default mode
        is overstrike.  Edit mode changes in MEMOEDIT() when the user presses
        Ins which toggles between the insert and overstrike.  It also changes
        in a user function using READINSERT() or RETURNing 22.  In insert
        mode, characters are entered into the text buffer at the current
        cursor position and the remainder of the text moves to the right.
        Insert mode is indicated in the scoreboard area.  In overstrike mode,
        characters are entered at the current cursor position overwriting
        existing characters while the rest of the text buffer remains in its
        current position.

        As the user enters text and the cursor reaches the edge of the
        MEMOEDIT() window, the current line wraps to the next line in the
        text buffer and a soft carriage return (CHR(141)) is inserted into
        the text.  If the <nLineLength> argument is specified, text wraps
        when the cursor position is the same as <nLineLength>.  If
        <nLineLength> is greater than the width of the MEMOEDIT() window, the
        window scrolls.  To explicitly start a new line or paragraph, the
        user must press Return.

     .  The edit screen: When MEMOEDIT() displays, it overwrites the
        specified area of the screen and does not save the underlying screen.
        Additionally, it does not display a border or a title.  To provide
        these facilities, you must create a procedure or user-defined
        function that performs these actions, and then calls MEMOEDIT().  See
        the example below.

     .  The user function: <cUserFunction>, a user-defined function
        specified as an argument, handles key exceptions and reconfigures
        special keys.  The user function is called at various times by
        MEMOEDIT(), most often in response to keys it does not recognize.
        Keys that instigate a key exception are all available control keys,
        function keys, and Alt keys.  Since these keys are not processed by
        MEMOEDIT(), they can be reconfigured.  Some of these keys have a
        default action assigned to them.  In the user function, you perform
        various actions depending on the current MEMOEDIT() mode, and then
        RETURN a value telling MEMOEDIT() what to do next.

        When the user function argument is specified, MEMOEDIT() defines two
        classes of keys: nonconfigurable and key exceptions.  When a
        nonconfigurable key is pressed, MEMOEDIT() executes it; otherwise, a
        key exception is generated and the user function is called.  When
        there are no keys left in the keyboard buffer for MEMOEDIT() to
        process, the user function is called once again.

        When MEMOEDIT() calls the user function, it automatically passes
        three parameters indicating the MEMOEDIT() mode, the current text
        buffer line, and the current text buffer column.  The mode indicates
        the current state of MEMOEDIT() depending on the last key pressed or
        the last action taken prior to executing the user function.  The
        following modes are possible:

        MEMOEDIT() Modes
        Mode    Memoedit.ch    Description
        0       ME_IDLE        Idle, all keys processed
        1       ME_UNKEY       Unknown key, memo unaltered
        2       ME_UNKEYX      Unknown key, memo altered
        3       ME_INIT        Initialization mode

        A mode value of 3 indicates that MEMOEDIT() is in initialization
        mode.  When you specify <cUserFunction>, MEMOEDIT() makes a call to
        the user function immediately after being invoked.  At this point,
        you RETURN a request to set MEMOEDIT()'s various text formatting
        modes: word wrap, scroll, or insert.  MEMOEDIT() calls the user
        function repeatedly, remaining in the initialization mode until you
        RETURN 0.  The text buffer is then displayed, and the user enters the
        edit mode set by <lEditMode>.  Note that if word wrap is on when
        MEMOEDIT() changes from initialization to edit mode, the entire text
        buffer is formatted with <nLineLength>.  To prevent this initial
        formatting, toggle word wrap off during initialization.  Note also
        that the toggles for scroll and word wrap are not assigned to any
        key, but can be assigned to a key from the user function.

        Modes 1 and 2 indicate that MEMOEDIT() has fetched an unrecognizable
        or configurable key from the keyboard buffer.  Configurable keys are
        processed by RETURNing 0 to execute the MEMOEDIT() default action.
        RETURNing a different value executes another key action, thereby
        redefining the key.  If the key is an unrecognizable key, you can
        define an action for it by RETURNing a value requesting a key action
        or perform an action of your own definition.

        Mode 0 indicates that MEMOEDIT() is now idle with no more keys to
        process.  Whenever MEMOEDIT() becomes idle, it always make a call to
        the user function.  At this point, you generally update line and
        column number displays.

        The other two parameters, current line and column, indicate the
        current cursor position in the text buffer when the user function is
        called.  The line parameter begins with position one (1), and column
        begins with position zero (0).

        When the mode is either 1, 2, or 3, you can return a value
        instructing MEMOEDIT() what action to perform next.  The following
        table summarizes the possible return values and their consequences:

        MEMOEDIT() User Function Return Values
        Value   Memoedit.ch         Action
        0       ME_DEFAULT          Perform default action
        1-31    ME_UNKEY            Process requested action corresponding to
                                    key value
        32      ME_IGNORE           Ignore unknown key
        33      ME_DATA             Treat unknown key as data
        34      ME_TOGGLEWRAP       Toggle word wrap mode
        35      ME_TOGGLESCROLL     Toggle scroll mode
        100     ME_WORDRIGHT        Perform word-right operation
        101     ME_BOTTOMRIGHT      Perform bottom-right operation

     .  Header files: To make the mode and request values easier to
        remember and use, the header file Memoedit.ch is supplied in
        \CLIP53\INCLUDE.  Additionally, Inkey.ch, which contains manifest
        constants for all the INKEY() values, is also located in the same


     .  Configuring keys: If the <cUserFunction> is specified, the
        keys in the table below are configurable.

        MEMOEDIT() Configurable Keys
        Key            Default Action
        Ctrl+Y         Delete the current line
        Ctrl+T         Delete word right
        Ctrl+B         Reform Paragraph
        Ctrl+V/Ins     Toggle insert mode
        Ctrl+W         Finish editing with save
        Esc            Abort edit and return original

        If the key is configurable, RETURNing 0 executes the MEMOEDIT()
        default action.  RETURNing a different value, however, executes
        another key action thereby redefining the key.  If the key is not a
        configurable key recognized by MEMOEDIT(), you can define an action
        for it also by RETURNing a value requesting a key action from the
        table above.

     .  Word wrap: Word wrap is a formatting mode you can toggle by
        RETURNing 34 from the user function.  When word wrap is on (the
        default setting), MEMOEDIT() inserts a soft carriage return/line feed
        at the closest word break to the window border or line length,
        whichever occurs first.  When word wrap is off, MEMOEDIT() scrolls
        text buffer beyond the edge of the window until the cursor reaches
        the end of line.  At this point, the user must press Return
        (inserting a hard carriage return/line feed) to advance to the next

     .  Reforming paragraphs: Pressing Ctrl+B or RETURNing a 2 from a
        user function reformats the text buffer until a hard carriage return
        (end of paragraph) or the end of the text buffer is reached.  This
        happens regardless of whether word wrap is on or off.

     .  Soft carriage returns: In Clipper, the insertion of soft
        carriage return/linefeed characters is never allowed to change the
        significant content of the text.  That is, when a soft carriage
        return/linefeed is inserted between two words, the space characters
        between the two words are preserved.  When text is reformatted, any
        soft carriage return/linefeed characters are removed.  This leaves
        the text in its original form and properly handles the case where a
        soft carriage return/linefeed has been inserted in the middle of a

        In the Summer '87 version of MEMOEDIT(), when a soft carriage
        return/line feed is inserted, a single space character is removed
        from the text at that point.  If the text is later reformatted using
        a different line width, each soft carriage return/linefeed is
        replaced by a single space.  However, if the text string is
        reformatted using any of the Clipper text handling functions,
        words that were separated by a soft carriage return/linefeed will be
        run together because the soft carriage return/linefeed is not
        replaced with a space.

        To prevent this, text that was formatted using Summer '87 MEMOEDIT()
        should be processed to change any soft carriage return/linefeed pairs
        into space characters.  This can be accomplished using the STRTRAN()
        function as follows:

        STRTRAN( <text>, CHR(141)+CHR(10), " " )

        To convert memo values in an existing database, the following two
        line program can be used:

        USE <xcDatabase>
        REPLACE ALL <idMemo> WITH ;
           STRTRAN( <idMemo>, CHR(141)+CHR(10), " " )

        Because of the .dbt file format, replacing all occurrences of a memo
        field can cause the .dbt file to grow significantly.  The .dbt file
        can be reduced by copying the .dbf to a new file.

        For very large .dbt files, it may not be feasible to perform the
        above procedure.  The supplied utility program, DBT50.EXE located in
        \CLIP53\BIN, may be useful in these cases.  DBT50 scans an entire
        .dbt file, replacing any soft carriage return/line feed pairs with
        two spaces.  Although this has the undesirable effect of causing
        certain words to be separated by two spaces instead of one, it allows
        the file to be processed in place without using additional disk
        space.  DBT50 modifies only soft carriage return/linefeed pairs in
        the target file.  Other text is unaffected.

     .  Editing text files: MEMOEDIT() edits text files if the text
        file can be read into a Clipper character variable.  This can be
        done with the MEMOREAD() function.  After editing the contents of the
        text file held in the character variable, write it back to the file
        using MEMOWRIT().


     .  This example lets you browse a memo field but prevents any
        changes to the text buffer:

        USE Customer NEW
        MEMOEDIT(CustNotes, 5, 10, 20, 69, .F.)

     .  This example allows editing of a memo field, assigning the
        changes back to the memo field:

        USE Customer NEW
        REPLACE CustNotes WITH ;
              MEMOEDIT(CustNotes, 5, 10, 20, 69)

     .  This example creates a character string using MEMOEDIT():

        LOCAL cNotes
        cNotes = MEMOEDIT()

     .  This example is a user-defined function that edits a character
        string in a boxed window displayed with a title:

     FUNCTION EditMemo( cString, cTitle,;
                 nTop, nLeft, nBottom, nRight )
           LOCAL cScreen := SAVESCREEN(nTop, nLeft,;
                 nBottom, nRight)
           @ nTop - 1, nLeft - 2 CLEAR TO nBottom + 1,;
                 nRight + 2
           @ nTop - 1, nLeft - 2 TO nBottom + 1, nRight + 2
           @ nTop - 1, nLeft SAY "[" + cTitle + "]"
           cString = MEMOEDIT(cString, nTop, nLeft,;
                 nBottom, nRight)
           RESTSCREEN(nTop, nLeft, nBottom, nRight, cScreen)

           RETURN (cString)

     .  This example reads the contents of a text file into a
        character variable, edits it, and then writes it back to disk:

        LOCAL cString := MEMOREAD("Text.txt")
        cString := MEMOEDIT(cString)
        IF !MEMOWRIT("Text.txt", cString)
           ? "Write error"

     .  This example contains a user-defined function that displays a
        message describing the current MEMOEDIT() mode.  Additionally, while
        in ME_UNKEY mode, the function will perform either a ME_WORDRIGHT or
        ME_BOTTOMRIGHT action depending on which associated function key is

        #include "Memoedit.ch"
        #include "Inkey.ch"

        PROCEDURE Main()
           USE Customer NEW
           REPLACE CustNotes WITH;
           MEMOEDIT( CustNotes, 5, 5, 15, 75, .T., "MemoUDF" )

        FUNCTION MemoUDF( nMode, nLine, nCol )
           LOCAL nKey := LASTKEY()
           LOCAL nRetVal := ME_DEFAULT         // Default return action

           DO CASE
           CASE nMode == ME_IDLE
              @ 20, 5 SAY "MemoMode is ME_IDLE  "
           CASE nMode == ME_UNKEY
              @ 20, 5 SAY "MemoMode is ME_UNKEY "
              DO CASE
              CASE nKey == K_F2
                 nRetVal := ME_WORDRIGHT
              CASE nKey == K_F3
                 nRetVal := ME_BOTTOMRIGHT
              CASE nMode == ME_UNKEYX
              @ 20, 5 SAY "MemoMode is ME_UNKEYX"
              @ 20, 5 SAY "MemoMode is ME_INIT  "

        RETURN nRetVal

 Files   Library is EXTEND.LIB, header files are Memoedit.ch and Inkey.ch.


One response to “C5_MEMOEDIT

  1. Pingback: C5_SET SCOREBOARD | Viva Clipper !

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