Harbour All Functions – A

AAdd
Abs
AChoice
AClone
ACopy
ACos

ADays
AddASCII
AddMonth
ADel
ADir
AfterAtNum
AEval
AFields
AFill
AIns
Alert
Alias
AllTrim

AMonths
Array
Asc
AScan
ASCIISum
ASCPos
ASin
ASize
ASort
At
AtAdjust
ATail
ATan
ATn2
AtNum
AtRepl
AtToken

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String Functions

AddASCII

AfterAtNum

AllTrim
Asc

ASCIISum

ASCPos
At

AtAdjust

AtNum
AtRepl
AtToken

BeforAtNum

Chr

CharAdd
CharAnd
CharEven
CharHist
CharList
CharMirr
CharMix
CharNoList
CharNot
CharOdd
CharOne
CharOnly
CharOr
CharPix
CharRela
CharRelRep
CharRem
CharRepl
CharRLL
CharRLR
CharSHL
CharSHR
CharSList
CharSort
CharSub
CharSwap
CharWin
CharXOR

CountLeft
CountRight
Descend
Empty
hb_At
hb_RAt
hb_ValToStr
IsAlpha
IsDigit
IsLower
IsUpper

JustLeft
JustRight

Left
Len
Lower
LTrim

NumAt
NumToken
PadLeft
PadRight

PadC
PadL
PadR

POSALPHA
POSCHAR
POSDEL
POSDIFF
POSEQUAL
POSINS
POSLOWER
POSRANGE
POSREPL
POSUPPER

RangeRem
RangeRepl

RAt

RemAll

RemLeft
RemRight
ReplAll

Replicate

ReplLeft

ReplRight

RestToken

Right
RTrim

SaveToken

SetAtLike
Space
Str

StrDiff

StrFormat

StrSwap

StrTran
StrZero
SubStr

TabExpand
TabPack

Token

TokenAt
TokenEnd
TokenExit
TokenInit
TokenLower
TokenNext
TokenNum
TokenSep
TokenUpper

Transform
Trim
Upper
Val

ValPos
WordOne
WordOnly
WordRem
WordRepl
WordSwap

WordToChar


Chr()

 

CHR()

Converts an ASCII value to it character value

Syntax

      CHR( <nAsciiNum> )  --> cReturn

Arguments

<nAsciiNum> Any ASCII character code.

Returns

<cReturn> Character expression of that ASCII value

Description

This function returns the ASCII character code for <nAsciiNum>. The number expressed must be an integer value within the range of 0 to 255 inclusive. The CHR() function will send the character returned to whatever device is presently set.

The CHR() function may be used for printing special codes as well as normal and graphics character codes.

Examples

      ? CHR( 32 )
      ? chr( 215 )

Compliance

Clipper

Platforms

All

Files

Library is rtl

Seealso

ASC(), INKEY()

C5_Functions

 AADD()          Add a new element to the end of an array
 ABS()           Return the absolute value of a numeric expression
 ACHOICE()       Execute a pop-up menu
 ACLONE()        Duplicate a nested or multidimensional array
 ACOPY()         Copy elements from one array to another
 ADEL()          Delete an array element
 ADIR()*         Fill a series of arrays with directory information
 AEVAL()         Execute a code block for each element in an array
 AFIELDS()*      Fill arrays with the structure of the current database file
 AFILL()         Fill an array with a specified value
 AINS()          Insert a NIL element into an array
 ALERT()         Display a simple modal dialog box
 ALIAS()         Return a specified work area alias
 ALLTRIM()       Remove leading and trailing spaces from a character string
 ALTD()          Invoke the CA-Clipper debugger
 ARRAY()         Create an uninitialized array of specified length
 ASC()           Convert a character to its ASCII value
 ASCAN()         Scan an array for a value or until a block returns true (.T.)
 ASIZE()         Grow or shrink an array
 ASORT()         Sort an array
 AT()            Return the position of a substring within a character string
 ATAIL()         Return the highest numbered element of an array
 BIN2I()         Convert a 16-bit signed integer to a numeric value
 BIN2L()         Convert a 32-bit signed integer to a numeric value
 BIN2W()         Convert a 16-bit unsigned integer to a numeric value
 BOF()           Determine when beginning of file is encountered
 BREAK()         Branch out of a BEGIN SEQUENCE...END construct
 BROWSE()*       Browse records within a window
 CDOW()          Convert a date value to a character day of the week
 CHR()           Convert an ASCII code to a character value
 CMONTH()        Convert a date to a character month name
 COL()           Return the screen cursor column position
 COLORSELECT()   Activate attribute in current color settings
 CTOD()          Convert a date string to a date value
 CURDIR()        Return the current DOS directory
 DATE()          Return the system date as a date value
 DAY()           Return the day of the month as a numeric value
 DBAPPEND()      Append a new record to the database in the current work area
 DBCLEARFIL()    Clear a filter condition
 DBCLEARIND()    Close all indexes for the current work area
 DBCLEARREL()    Clear active relations
 DBCLOSEALL()    Close all occupied work areas
 DBCLOSEAREA()   Close a work area
 DBCOMMIT()      Flush pending updates
 DBCOMMITALL()   Flush pending updates in all work areas
 DBCREATE()      Create a database file from a database structure array
 DBCREATEIND()   Create an index file
 DBDELETE()      Mark a record for deletion
 DBEDIT()        Browse records in a table layout
 DBEVAL()        Evaluate code block for each record matching scope/condition
 DBF()*          Return current alias name
 DBFIELDINFO()   Return and optionally change information about a field
 DBFILEGET()     Insert the contents of a field into a file
 DBFILEPUT()     Insert the contents of a file into a field
 DBFILTER()      Return the current filter expression as a character string
 DBGOBOTTOM()    Move to the last logical record
 DBGOTO()        Position record pointer to a specific identity
 DBGOTOP()       Move to the first logical record
 DBINFO()        Return and optionally change database file information
 DBORDERINFO()   Return and optionally change order and index file information
 DBRECALL()      Reinstate a record marked for deletion
 DBRECORDINFO()  Return and optionally change information about a record
 DBREINDEX()     Recreate all active indexes for the current work area
 DBRELATION()    Return the linking expression of a specified relation
 DBRLOCK()       Lock the record at the current or specified identity
 DBRLOCKLIST()   Return an array of the current lock list
 DBRSELECT()     Return the target work area number of a relation
 DBRUNLOCK()     Release all or specified record locks
 DBSEEK()        Move to the record having the specified key value
 DBSELECTAR()    Change the current work area
 DBSETDRIVER()   Return the database driver and optionally set a new driver
 DBSETFILTER()   Set a filter condition
 DBSETINDEX()    Empty orders from an order bag into the order list
 DBSETORDER()    Set the controlling order
 DBSETRELAT()    Relate two work areas
 DBSKIP()        Move relative to the current record
 DBSTRUCT()      Create an array containing the structure of a database file
 DBUNLOCK()      Release all locks for the current work area
 DBUNLOCKALL()   Release all locks for all work areas
 DBUSEAREA()     Use a database file in a work area
 DELETED()       Return the deleted status of the current record
 DESCEND()       Create a descending index key value
 DEVOUT()        Write a value to the current device
 DEVOUTPICT()    Write a value to the current device using a picture clause
 DEVPOS()        Move the cursor or printhead to a new position
 DIRCHANGE()     Change the current DOS directory
 DIRECTORY()     Create an array of directory and file information
 DIRMAKE()       Create a directory
 DIRREMOVE()     Remove a directory
 DISKCHANGE()    Change the current DOS disk drive
 DISKNAME()      Return the current DOS drive
 DISKSPACE()     Return the space available on a specified disk
 DISPBEGIN()     Begin buffering screen output
 DISPBOX()       Display a box on the screen
 DISPCOUNT()     Return the number of pending DISPEND() requests
 DISPEND()       Display buffered screen updates
 DISPOUT()       Write a value to the display
 DOSERROR()      Return the last DOS error number
 DOW()           Convert a date value to a numeric day of the week
 DTOC()          Convert a date value to a character string
 DTOS()          Convert a date value to a string formatted as yyyymmdd
 EMPTY()         Determine if the result of an expression is empty
 EOF()           Determine when end of file is encountered
 ERRORBLOCK()    Post a code block to execute when a runtime error occurs
 ERRORLEVEL()    Set the CA-Clipper return code
 EVAL()          Evaluate a code block
 EXP()           Calculate e**x
 FCLOSE()        Close an open binary file and write DOS buffers to disk
 FCOUNT()        Return the number of fields in the current .dbf file
 FCREATE()       Create and/or truncate a binary file to zero-length
 FERASE()        Delete a file from disk
 FERROR()        Test for errors after a binary file operation
 FIELD()         Return a field name from the current database (.dbf) file
 FIELDBLOCK()    Return a set-get code block for a given field
 FIELDGET()      Retrieve the value of a field using the field position
 FIELDNAME()     Return a field name from the current database (.dbf) file
 FIELDPOS()      Return the position of a field in a work area
 FIELDPUT()      Set the value of a field variable using the field position
 FIELDWBLOCK()   Return a set-get code block for a field in a given work area
 FILE()          Determine if files exist in the default directory or path
 FKLABEL()*      Return function key name
 FKMAX()*        Return number of function keys as a constant
 FLOCK()         Lock an open and shared database file
 FOPEN()         Open a binary file
 FOUND()         Determine if the previous search operation succeeded
 FREAD()         Read characters from a binary file into a buffer variable
 FREADSTR()      Read characters from a binary file
 FRENAME()       Change the name of a file
 FSEEK()         Set a binary file pointer to a new position
 FWRITE()        Write to an open binary file
 GETACTIVE()     Return the currently active Get object
 GETAPPLYKEY()   Apply a key to a Get object from within a reader
 GETDOSETKEY()   Process SET KEY during GET editing
 GETENV()        Retrieve the contents of a DOS environment variable
 GETPOSTVALID()  Postvalidate the current Get object
 GETPREVALID()   Prevalidate a Get object
 GETREADER()     Execute standard READ behavior for a Get object
 HARDCR()        Replace all soft carriage returns with hard carriage returns
 HEADER()        Return the current database file header length
 I2BIN()         Convert a CA-Clipper numeric to a 16-bit binary integer
 IF()            Return the result of an expression based on a condition
 IIF()           Return the result of an expression based on a condition
 INDEXEXT()      Return index extension defined by the current database driver
 INDEXKEY()      Return the key expression of a specified index
 INDEXORD()      Return the order position of the controlling index
 INKEY()         Extract a character from the keyboard buffer or a mouse event
 INT()           Convert a numeric value to an integer
 ISALPHA()       Determine if the leftmost character in a string is alphabetic
 ISCOLOR()       Determine if the current computer has color capability
 ISDIGIT()       Determine if the leftmost character in a string is a digit
 ISLOWER()       Determine if the leftmost character is a lowercase letter
 ISPRINTER()     Determine whether LPT1 is ready
 ISUPPER()       Determine if the leftmost character in a string is uppercase
 L2BIN()         Convert a CA-Clipper numeric value to a 32-bit binary integer
 LASTKEY()       Return INKEY() value of last key extracted from the keyboard
 LASTREC()       Determine the number of records in the current .dbf file
 LEFT()          Extract substring beginning with first character in a string
 LEN()           Return the length of a string or number of array elements
 LOG()           Calculate the natural logarithm of a numeric value
 LOWER()         Convert uppercase characters to lowercase
 LTRIM()         Remove leading spaces from a character string
 LUPDATE()       Return the last modification date of a database (.dbf) file
 MAX()           Return the larger of two numeric or date values
 MAXCOL()        Determine the maximum visible screen column
 MAXROW()        Determine the maximum visible screen row
 MEMOEDIT()      Display or edit character strings and memo fields
 MEMOLINE()      Extract a line of text from a character string or memo field
 MEMOREAD()      Return the contents of a disk file as a character string
 MEMORY()        Determine the amount of available free pool memory
 MEMOSETSUPER()  Set an RDD inheritance chain for the DBFMEMO database driver
 MEMOTRAN()      Replace carriage return/linefeeds in character strings
 MEMOWRIT()      Write a character string or memo field to a disk file
 MEMVARBLOCK()   Return a set-get code block for a given memory variable
 MENUMODAL()     Activate a top bar menu
 MIN()           Return the smaller of two numeric or date values
 MLCOUNT()       Count the number of lines in a character string or memo field
 MLCTOPOS()      Return position of a string based on line and column position
 MLPOS()         Determine the position of a line in a string or memo field 
 MOD()*          Return the dBASE III PLUS modulus of two numbers
 MONTH()         Convert a date value to the number of the month
 MPOSTOLC()      Return line/ column position of a string based on a position
 NETERR()        Determine if a network command has failed
 NETNAME()       Return the current workstation identification
 NEXTKEY()       Read the pending key in the keyboard buffer 
 NOSNOW()        Toggle snow suppression
 ORDBAGEXT()     Return the default order bag RDD extension
 ORDBAGNAME()    Return the order bag name of a specific order
 ORDCOND()       Specify conditions for ordering
 ORDCONDSET()    Set the condition and scope for an order
 ORDCREATE()     Create an order in an order bag
 ORDDESCEND()    Return and optionally change the descending flag of an order
 ORDDESTROY()    Remove a specified order from an order bag
 ORDFOR()        Return the FOR expression of an order
 ORDISUNIQUE()   Return the status of the unique flag for a given order
 ORDKEY()        Return the key expression of an order
 ORDKEYADD()     Add a key to a custom built order
 ORDKEYCOUNT()   Return the number of keys in an order
 ORDKEYDEL()     Delete a key from a custom built order
 ORDKEYGOTO()    Move to a record specified by its logical record number
 ORDKEYNO()      Get the logical record number of the current record
 ORDKEYVAL()     Get key value of the current record from controlling order
 ORDLISTADD()    Add orders to the order list
 ORDLISTCLEAR()  Clear the current order list
 ORDLISTREBUI()  Rebuild all orders in the order list of the current work area
 ORDNAME()       Return the name of an order in the order list
 ORDNUMBER()     Return the position of an order in the current order list
 ORDSCOPE()      Set or clear the boundaries for scoping key values
 ORDSETFOCUS()   Set focus to an order in an order list
 ORDSETRELAT()   Relate a specified work area to the current work area
 ORDSKIPUNIQUE() Move record pointer to the next or previous unique key
 OS()            Return the operating system name
 OUTERR()        Write a list of values to the standard error device
 OUTSTD()        Write a list of values to the standard output device
 PAD()           Pad character, date, and numeric values with a fill character
 PCOL()          Return the current column position of the printhead
 PCOUNT()        Determine the position of the last actual parameter passed
 PROCLINE()      Return source line number of current or previous activation
 PROCNAME()      Return name of the current or previous procedure or function
 PROW()          Return the current row position of the printhead
 QOUT()          Display a list of expressions to the console
 RAT()           Return the position of the last occurrence of a substring
 RDDLIST()       Return an array of the RDDs
 RDDNAME()       Return name of RDD active in current or specified work area
 RDDSETDEFAULT() Set or return the default RDD for the application
 READEXIT()      Toggle Up arrow and Down arrow as READ exit keys
 READFORMAT()    Return and optionally set code block to implement format file
 READINSERT()    Toggle the current insert mode for READ and MEMOEDIT()
 READKEY()*      Determine what key terminated a READ
 READKILL()      Return and optionally set whether current READ can be exited
 READMODAL()     Activate a full-screen editing mode for a GetList
 READUPDATED()   Determine whether any GET variables changed during a READ
 READVAR()       Return the current GET/MENU variable name
 RECCOUNT()*     Determine the number of records in the current database file
 RECNO()         Return the identity at the position of the record pointer
 RECSIZE()       Determine the record length of a database (.dbf) file
 REPLICATE()     Return a string repeated a specified number of times
 RESTSCREEN()    Display a saved screen region to a specified location
 RIGHT()         Return a substring beginning with the rightmost character
 RLOCK()         Lock the current record in the active work area
 ROUND()         Return a numeric value rounded to a specified number of digits
 ROW()           Return the screen row position of the cursor
 RTRIM()         Remove trailing spaces from a character string
 SAVESCREEN()    Save a screen region for later display
 SCROLL()        Scroll a screen region up or down, right or left
 SECONDS()       Return the number of seconds elapsed since midnight
 SELECT()        Determine the work area number of a specified alias
 SET()           Inspect or change a system setting
 SETBLINK()      Toggle * interpretation between blinking/background intensity
 SETCANCEL()     Toggle Alt+C and Ctrl+Break as program termination keys
 SETCOLOR()      Return the current colors and optionally set new colors
 SETCURSOR()     Set the cursor shape
 SETKEY()        Assign an action block to a key
 SETMODE()       Change display mode to a specified number of rows and columns
 SETPOS()        Move the cursor to a new position
 SETPRC()        Set PROW() and PCOL() values
 SOUNDEX()       Convert a character string to "soundex" form
 SPACE()         Return a string of spaces
 SQRT()          Return the square root of a positive number
 STR()           Convert a numeric expression to a character string
 STRTRAN()       Search and replace characters within a string or memo field
 STUFF()         Delete and insert characters in a string
 SUBSTR()        Extract a substring from a character string
 TIME()          Return the system time
 TONE()          Sound a speaker tone for a specified frequency and duration
 TRANSFORM()     Convert any value into a formatted character string
 TRIM()          Remove trailing spaces from a character string
 TYPE()          Determine the type of an expression
 UPDATED()       Determine whether a GET changed during a READ
 UPPER()         Convert lowercase characters to uppercase
 USED()          Determine whether a database file is in USE
 VAL()           Convert a character number to numeric type
 VALTYPE()       Determine the data type returned by an expression
 VERSION()       Returns CA-Clipper version
 WORD()*         Convert CALL command numeric parameters from double to int
 YEAR()          Convert a date value to the year as a numeric value

C5_ASC

 ASC()
 Convert a character to its ASCII value
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Syntax

     ASC(<cExp>) --> nCode

 Arguments

     <cExp> is the character expression to be converted to a number.

 Returns

     ASC() returns an integer numeric value in the range of zero to 255,
     representing the ASCII value of <cExp>.

 Description

     ASC() is a character conversion function that returns the ASCII value of the
     leftmost character in a character string.  ASC() is used primarily on
     expressions requiring numeric calculations on the ASCII value of a
     character.  CHR() and ASC() are inverse functions.

 Examples

     .  These examples illustrate various results of ASC():

        ? ASC("A")                     // Result: 65
        ? ASC("Apple")                 // Result: 65
        ? ASC("a")                     // Result: 97
        ? ASC("Z") - ASC("A")          // Result: 25
        ? ASC("")                      // Result: 0

 Files   Library is CLIPPER.LIB.

See Also: CHR() INKEY() STR() VAL()

 

C5 Data Manipulation Functions

Array :

AADD() :

Add a new element to the end of an array

AADD( <aTarget>, <expValue> ) --> Value

ACLONE() :

Duplicate a nested or multidimensional array

ACLONE( <aSource> ) --> aDuplicate

ACOPY() :

Copy elements from one array to another

ACOPY( <aSource>, <aTarget>, [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ], 
    [ <nTargetPos> ] ) --> aTarget

ADEL() :

Delete an array element

ADEL( <aTarget>, <nPosition> ) --> aTarget

ADIR()* :

Fill a series of arrays with directory information

ADIR([ <cFilespec> ],
    [ <aFilenames> ],
    [ <aSizes> ],
    [ <aDates> ],
    [ <aTimes> ],
    [ <aAttributes> ] ) --> nFiles

AEVAL() :

Execute a code block for each element in an array

AEVAL( <aArray>, <bBlock>, [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ] ) --> aArray

AFILL() :

Fill an array with a specified value

AFILL( <aTarget>, <expValue>, [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ] )
       --> aTarget

AINS() :

Insert a NIL element into an array

AINS( <aTarget>, <nPosition> ) --> aTarget

ARRAY() :

Create an uninitialized array of specified length

ARRAY( <nElements> [, <nElements>...] ) --> aArray

ASCAN() :

Scan an array for a value or until a block returns (.T.)

ASCAN( <aTarget>, <expSearch>, [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ] )
      --> nStoppedAt

ASIZE() :

Grow or shrink an array

ASIZE( <aTarget>, <nLength> ) --> aTarget

ASORT() :

Sort an array

ASORT( <aTarget>, [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ], [ <bOrder> ] )
       --> aTarget

ATAIL() :

Return value of the highest numbered (last) element of an array

ATAIL( <aArray> ) --> Element

Common :

EMPTY() :

Determine if the result of an expression is empty

EMPTY( <exp> ) --> lEmpty

LEN() :

Return the length of a character string or array size

LEN( <cString> | <aArray> ) --> nCount

MAX() :

Return the larger of two numeric or date values

MAX( <nExp1>, <nExp2> ) --> nLarger
MAX( <dExp1>, <dExp2> ) --> dLarger

MIN() :

Return the smaller of two numeric or date values

MIN( <nExp1>, <nExp2> ) --> nSmaller
MIN( <dExp1>, <dExp2> ) --> dSmaller

PAD() :

Pad character, date or numeric values with a fill character

PADL( <exp>, <nLength>, [ <cFillChar> ] ) --> cPaddedString
PADC( <exp>, <nLength>, [ <cFillChar> ] ) --> cPaddedString
PADR( <exp>, <nLength>, [ <cFillChar> ] ) --> cPaddedString

TRANSFORM() :

Convert any value into a formatted character string

TRANSFORM( <exp>, <cSayPicture> ) --> cFormatString

TYPE() :

Determine the type of an expression

TYPE( <cExp> ) --> cType

VALTYPE() :

Determine the data type returned by an expression

VALTYPE( <exp> ) --> cType

Date & Time :

CDOW() :

Convert a date value to a character day of the week

CDOW( <dExp> ) --> cDayName

CMONTH() :

Convert a date to a character month name

CMONTH( <dDate> ) --> cMonth

CTOD() :

Convert a date string to a date value

CTOD( <cDate> ) --> dDate

DATE() :

Return the system date as a date value

DATE() --> dSystem

DAY() :

Return the day of the month as a numeric value

DAY( <dDate> ) --> nDay

DOW() :

Convert a date value to a numeric day of the week

DOW( <dDate> ) --> nDay

DTOC() :

Convert a date value to a character string

DTOC( <dDate> ) --> cDate

DTOS() :

Convert a date value to a string formatted as yyyymmdd

DTOS( <dDate> ) --> cDate

MONTH() :

Convert a date value to the number of the month

MONTH( <dDate> ) --> nMonth

SECONDS() :

Return the number of seconds elapsed since midnight

SECONDS() --> nSeconds

TIME() :

Return the system time

TIME() --> cTimeString

YEAR() :

Convert a date value to the year as a numeric value

YEAR( <dDate> ) --> nYear

Numeric :

ABS() :

Return the absolute value of a numeric expression

ABS( <nExp> ) --> nPositive

BIN2I() :

Convert a 16-bit signed integer to a numeric value

BIN2I( <cSignedInt> ) --> nNumber

BIN2L() :

Convert a 32-bit signed integer to a numeric value

BIN2L( <cSignedInt> ) --> nNumber

BIN2W() :

Convert a 16-bit unsigned integer to a numeric value

BIN2W( <cUnsignedInt> ) --> nNumber

EXP() :

Calculate e**x

EXP( <nExponent> ) --> nAntilogarithm

INT() :

Convert a numeric value to an integer

INT( <nExp> ) --> nInteger

I2BIN() :

Convert a numeric to a 16-bit binary integer

I2BIN( <nInteger> ) --> cBinaryInteger

LOG() :

Calculate the natural logarithm of a numeric value

LOG( <nExp> ) --> nNaturalLog

L2BIN() :

Convert a numeric value to a 32-bit binary integer

L2BIN( <nExp> ) --> cBinaryInteger

MOD()* :

Return dBASE III PLUS modulus of two numbers

MOD( <nDividend>, <nDivisor> ) --> nRemainder

ROUND() :

Return a value rounded to a specified number of digits

ROUND( <nNumber>, <nDecimals> ) --> nRounded

SQRT() :

Return the square root of a positive number

SQRT( <nNumber> ) --> nRoot

VAL() :

Convert a character number to numeric type

VAL( <cNumber> ) --> nNumber

String & Memo :

ALLTRIM() :

Remove leading and trailing spaces from character string

ALLTRIM( <cString> ) --> cTrimString

ASC() :

Convert a character to its ASCII value

ASC( <cExp> ) --> nCode

AT() :

Return the position of a substring within a string

AT( <cSearch>, <cTarget> ) --> nPosition

CHR() :

Convert an ASCII code to a character value

CHR( <nCode> ) --> cChar

HARDCR() :

Replace all soft CRs with hard CRs

HARDCR( <cString> ) --> cConvertedString

ISALPHA() :

Determine if the leftmost character is alphabetic

ISALPHA( <cString> ) --> lBoolean

ISDIGIT() :

Determine if the leftmost character is a digit

ISDIGIT( <cString> ) --> lBoolean

ISLOWER() :

Determine if the leftmost character is a lower case letter

ISLOWER( <cString> ) --> lBoolean

ISUPPER() :

Determine if the leftmost character is upper case

ISUPPER( <cString> ) --> lBoolean

LEFT() :

Extract a substring beginning with the first character

LEFT( <cString>, <nCount> ) --> cSubString

LOWER() :

Convert uppercase characters to lowercase

LOWER( <cString> ) --> cLowerString

LTRIM() :

Remove leading spaces from a character string

LTRIM( <cString> ) --> cTrimString

MEMOEDIT() :

Display or edit character strings and memo fields

MEMOEDIT( [ <cString> ],
    [ <nTop> ], [ <nLeft> ],
    [ <nBottom> ], [ <nRight> ],
    [ <lEditMode> ],
    [ <cUserFunction> ],
    [ <nLineLength> ],
    [ <nTabSize> ],
    [ <nTextBufferRow> ],
    [ <nTextBufferColumn> ],
    [ <nWindowRow> ],
    [ <nWindowColumn> ] ) --> cTextBuffer

MEMOLINE() :

Extract a line of text from character string or memo field

MEMOLINE( <cString>,
    [ <nLineLength> ],
    [ <nLineNumber> ],
    [ <nTabSize> ],
    [ <lWrap> ] ) --> cLine

MEMOREAD() :

Return the contents of a disk file as a character string

MEMOREAD( <cFile> ) --> cString

MEMOTRAN() :

Replace carriage return/line feeds in character strings

MEMOTRAN( <cString>,
    [ <cReplaceHardCR> ],
    [ <cReplaceSoftCR> ] ) --> cNewString

MEMOWRIT() :

Write a character string or memo field to a disk file

MEMOWRIT( <cFile>, <cString> ) --> lSuccess

MLCOUNT() :

Count the lines in a character string or memo field

MLCOUNT( <cString>, [ <nLineLength> ],  [ <nTabSize> ],
         [ <lWrap> ] ) --> nLines

MLCTOPOS() :

Return byte position based on line and column position

MLCTOPOS( <cText>, <nWidth>, <nLine>,
    <nCol>, [ <nTabSize> ], [ <lWrap> ] ) --> nPosition

MLPOS() :

Determine the position of a line in a memo field

MLPOS( <cString>, <nLineLength>,
     <nLine>, [ <nTabSize> ], [ <lWrap> ] ) --> nPosition

MPOSTOLC() :

Return line and column position based on byte position

MPOSTOLC( <cText>, <nWidth>, <nPos>,
     [ <nTabSize> ], [ <lWrap> ] ) --> aLineColumn

RAT() :

Return the position of the last occurrence of a substring

RAT( <cSearch>, <cTarget> ) --> nPosition

REPLICATE() :

Return a string repeated a specified number of times

REPLICATE( <cString>, <nCount> ) --> cRepeatedString

RIGHT() :

Return a substring beginning with rightmost character

RIGHT( <cString>, <nCount> ) --> cSubString

RTRIM() :

Remove trailing spaces from a character string

RTRIM( <cString> ) --> cTrimString

SET EXACT* :

Toggle exact matches for character strings

SET EXACT on | OFF | <xlToggle>

SOUNDEX() :

Convert a character string to soundex form

SOUNDEX( <cString> ) --> cSoundexString

SPACE() :

Return a string of spaces

SPACE( <nCount> ) --> cSpaces

STR() :

Convert a numeric expression to a character string

STR( <nNumber>, [ <nLength> ], [ <nDecimals> ] ) --> cNumber

STRTRAN() :

Search and replace characters within a character string

STRTRAN( <cString>, <cSearch>, [ <cReplace> ],
    [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ] ) --> cNewString

STUFF() :

Delete and insert characters in a string

STUFF( <cString>, <nStart>, <nDelete>, <cInsert> ) --> cNewString

SUBSTR() :

Extract a substring from a character string

SUBSTR( <cString>, <nStart>, [ <nCount> ] ) --> cSubstring

TRIM() :

Remove trailing spaces from a character string

TRIM( <cString> ) --> cTrimString

UPPER() :

Convert lowercase characters to uppercase

UPPER( <cString> ) --> cUpperString