String Functions

AddASCII

AfterAtNum

AllTrim
Asc

ASCIISum

ASCPos
At

AtAdjust

AtNum
AtRepl
AtToken

BeforAtNum

Chr

CharAdd
CharAnd
CharEven
CharHist
CharList
CharMirr
CharMix
CharNoList
CharNot
CharOdd
CharOne
CharOnly
CharOr
CharPix
CharRela
CharRelRep
CharRem
CharRepl
CharRLL
CharRLR
CharSHL
CharSHR
CharSList
CharSort
CharSub
CharSwap
CharWin
CharXOR

CountLeft
CountRight
Descend
Empty
hb_At
hb_RAt
hb_ValToStr
IsAlpha
IsDigit
IsLower
IsUpper

JustLeft
JustRight

Left
Len
Lower
LTrim

NumAt
NumToken
PadLeft
PadRight

PadC
PadL
PadR

POSALPHA
POSCHAR
POSDEL
POSDIFF
POSEQUAL
POSINS
POSLOWER
POSRANGE
POSREPL
POSUPPER

RangeRem
RangeRepl

RAt

RemAll

RemLeft
RemRight
ReplAll

Replicate

ReplLeft

ReplRight

RestToken

Right
RTrim

SaveToken

SetAtLike
Space
Str

StrDiff

StrFormat

StrSwap

StrTran
StrZero
SubStr

TabExpand
TabPack

Token

TokenAt
TokenEnd
TokenExit
TokenInit
TokenLower
TokenNext
TokenNum
TokenSep
TokenUpper

Transform
Trim
Upper
Val

ValPos
WordOne
WordOnly
WordRem
WordRepl
WordSwap

WordToChar


SubStr()

SubStr()

Returns a substring from a main string

Syntax

      SubStr( <cString>,  <nStart>,  [<nLen>] ) --> cReturn

Arguments

<cString> Character expression to be parsed

<nStart> Start position

<nLen> Number of characters to return

Returns

<cReturn> Substring of evaluation

Description

This functions returns a character string formed from <cString>, starting at the position of <nStart> and continuing on for a length of <nLen> characters. If <nLen> is not specified, the value will be all remaining characters from the position of <nStart>.

The value of <nStart> may be negative. If it is, the direction of operation is reversed from a default of left-to-right to right-to-left for the number of characters specified in <nStart>. If the number of characters from <nStart> to the end of the string is less than <nLen> the rest are ignored.

Examples

      ? SubStr( "HELLO HARBOUR" ,   7,  4 )      // HARB
      ? SubStr( "HELLO HARBOUR" ,  -3,  3 )      // OUR
      ? SubStr( "HELLO HARBOUR" ,   7    )      // HARBOUR

Compliance

Clipper

Platforms

All(64K)

Files

Library is core

Seealso

Left(), At(), Right()

Right()

RIGHT()

Extract the rightmost substring of a character expression

Syntax

      RIGHT( <cString>, <nLen> ) --> cReturn

Arguments

<cString> Character expression to be parsed

<nLen> Number of bytes to return beginning at the rightmost position

Returns

<cReturn> Substring of evaluation

Description

This functions returns the rightmost <nLen> characters of <cString>. It is equivalent to the following expressions:

SUBSTR( <cString>, – <nLen> )

SUBSTR( <cString>, LEN( <cString> ) – <nLen> + 1, <nLen> )

Examples

      ? RIGHT( "HELLO HARBOUR", 5 )     // RBOUR

Compliance

Clipper

Platforms

All

Files

Library is rtl

Seealso

SUBSTR(), LEFT(), AT(), RAT()

SP_ALLBUT

ALLBUT()

  Short:
  ------
  ALLBUT() Returns all but last x characters

  Returns:
  --------
  <cAllBut> => All but last n characters

  Syntax:
  -------
  ALLBUT(cInString,nAllBut)

  Description:
  ------------
  Returns all but the rightmost <nAllbutt> letters of
  <cInString>

  Examples:
  ---------

   string := "SUPERFUNCTION"
   string := ALLBUT(string,8)    //  => returns  "SUPER"

  Notes:
  -------
  Useful when you don't know the length of a string in
  order to take left(x) characters.

  Source:
  -------
  S_ALLBUT.PRG

 

C5_LEFT

 LEFT()
 Extract a substring beginning with the first character in a string
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Syntax

     LEFT(<cString>, <nCount>) --> cSubString

 Arguments

     <cString> is a character string from which to extract characters.
     The maximum size of <cString> is 65,535 (64K) bytes.

     <nCount> is the number of characters to extract.

 Returns

     LEFT() returns the leftmost <nCount> characters of <cString> as a
     character string.  If <nCount> is negative or zero, LEFT() returns a
     null string ("").  If <nCount> is larger than the length of the
     character string, LEFT() returns the entire string.

 Description

     LEFT() is a character function that returns a substring of a specified
     character string.  It is the same as SUBSTR(<cString>, 1, <nCount>).
     LEFT() is also like RIGHT(), which returns a substring beginning with
     the last character in a string.

     LEFT(), RIGHT(), and SUBSTR() are often used with both the AT() and
     RAT() functions to locate the first and/or the last position of a
     substring before extracting it.

 Examples

     .  This example extracts the first three characters from the left
        of the target string:

        ? LEFT("ABCDEF", 3)                  // Result: ABC

     .  This example extracts a substring from the beginning of a
        string up to the first occurrence of a comma:

        LOCAL cName := "James, William"
        ? LEFT(cName, AT(",", cName) - 1)   // Result: James

 Files   Library is CLIPPER.LIB.

See Also: AT() LTRIM() RAT() RIGHT() RTRIM() STUFF() SUBSTR()



First + Last words in a string

/*
First + Last words in a string

*/
PROCEDURE Main()
   CLS
   ?
   ? "First + Last words in a string"
   ?

   cUpString := "Miguel Cervantes de Saavedra"

   ? "Up String :", cUpString
   ?

   cNewString := LEFT( cUpString, AT( " ", cUpString ) )+; // First word
            SUBSTR( cUpString, RAT( " ", cUpString ) + 1 ) // Last word 

   ?
   ? "Method one ( manual ) :", cNewString // Miguel Saavedra

   aWords := HB_ATOKENS( cUpString )
   cNewString := aWords[ 1 ] + " " + ; // First word
                 ATAIL( aWords )       // Last word
   ?
   ? "Method two ( ATOKENS() ) :", cNewString // Miguel Saavedra

   *
   * TOKEN() function require libhbct
   *
   cNewString := TOKEN( cUpString,,1 ) + " " + ; // First word
                 TOKEN( cUpString )              // Last word 

   ?
   ? "Method three ( TOKEN() ) :", cNewString // Miguel Saavedra

   @ MAXROW(), 0
   WAIT "EOF FLWs.prg"

RETURN // FLWs.Main()

FLWs

C5 Data Manipulation Functions

Array :

AADD() :

Add a new element to the end of an array

AADD( <aTarget>, <expValue> ) --> Value

ACLONE() :

Duplicate a nested or multidimensional array

ACLONE( <aSource> ) --> aDuplicate

ACOPY() :

Copy elements from one array to another

ACOPY( <aSource>, <aTarget>, [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ], 
    [ <nTargetPos> ] ) --> aTarget

ADEL() :

Delete an array element

ADEL( <aTarget>, <nPosition> ) --> aTarget

ADIR()* :

Fill a series of arrays with directory information

ADIR([ <cFilespec> ],
    [ <aFilenames> ],
    [ <aSizes> ],
    [ <aDates> ],
    [ <aTimes> ],
    [ <aAttributes> ] ) --> nFiles

AEVAL() :

Execute a code block for each element in an array

AEVAL( <aArray>, <bBlock>, [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ] ) --> aArray

AFILL() :

Fill an array with a specified value

AFILL( <aTarget>, <expValue>, [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ] )
       --> aTarget

AINS() :

Insert a NIL element into an array

AINS( <aTarget>, <nPosition> ) --> aTarget

ARRAY() :

Create an uninitialized array of specified length

ARRAY( <nElements> [, <nElements>...] ) --> aArray

ASCAN() :

Scan an array for a value or until a block returns (.T.)

ASCAN( <aTarget>, <expSearch>, [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ] )
      --> nStoppedAt

ASIZE() :

Grow or shrink an array

ASIZE( <aTarget>, <nLength> ) --> aTarget

ASORT() :

Sort an array

ASORT( <aTarget>, [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ], [ <bOrder> ] )
       --> aTarget

ATAIL() :

Return value of the highest numbered (last) element of an array

ATAIL( <aArray> ) --> Element

Common :

EMPTY() :

Determine if the result of an expression is empty

EMPTY( <exp> ) --> lEmpty

LEN() :

Return the length of a character string or array size

LEN( <cString> | <aArray> ) --> nCount

MAX() :

Return the larger of two numeric or date values

MAX( <nExp1>, <nExp2> ) --> nLarger
MAX( <dExp1>, <dExp2> ) --> dLarger

MIN() :

Return the smaller of two numeric or date values

MIN( <nExp1>, <nExp2> ) --> nSmaller
MIN( <dExp1>, <dExp2> ) --> dSmaller

PAD() :

Pad character, date or numeric values with a fill character

PADL( <exp>, <nLength>, [ <cFillChar> ] ) --> cPaddedString
PADC( <exp>, <nLength>, [ <cFillChar> ] ) --> cPaddedString
PADR( <exp>, <nLength>, [ <cFillChar> ] ) --> cPaddedString

TRANSFORM() :

Convert any value into a formatted character string

TRANSFORM( <exp>, <cSayPicture> ) --> cFormatString

TYPE() :

Determine the type of an expression

TYPE( <cExp> ) --> cType

VALTYPE() :

Determine the data type returned by an expression

VALTYPE( <exp> ) --> cType

Date & Time :

CDOW() :

Convert a date value to a character day of the week

CDOW( <dExp> ) --> cDayName

CMONTH() :

Convert a date to a character month name

CMONTH( <dDate> ) --> cMonth

CTOD() :

Convert a date string to a date value

CTOD( <cDate> ) --> dDate

DATE() :

Return the system date as a date value

DATE() --> dSystem

DAY() :

Return the day of the month as a numeric value

DAY( <dDate> ) --> nDay

DOW() :

Convert a date value to a numeric day of the week

DOW( <dDate> ) --> nDay

DTOC() :

Convert a date value to a character string

DTOC( <dDate> ) --> cDate

DTOS() :

Convert a date value to a string formatted as yyyymmdd

DTOS( <dDate> ) --> cDate

MONTH() :

Convert a date value to the number of the month

MONTH( <dDate> ) --> nMonth

SECONDS() :

Return the number of seconds elapsed since midnight

SECONDS() --> nSeconds

TIME() :

Return the system time

TIME() --> cTimeString

YEAR() :

Convert a date value to the year as a numeric value

YEAR( <dDate> ) --> nYear

Numeric :

ABS() :

Return the absolute value of a numeric expression

ABS( <nExp> ) --> nPositive

BIN2I() :

Convert a 16-bit signed integer to a numeric value

BIN2I( <cSignedInt> ) --> nNumber

BIN2L() :

Convert a 32-bit signed integer to a numeric value

BIN2L( <cSignedInt> ) --> nNumber

BIN2W() :

Convert a 16-bit unsigned integer to a numeric value

BIN2W( <cUnsignedInt> ) --> nNumber

EXP() :

Calculate e**x

EXP( <nExponent> ) --> nAntilogarithm

INT() :

Convert a numeric value to an integer

INT( <nExp> ) --> nInteger

I2BIN() :

Convert a numeric to a 16-bit binary integer

I2BIN( <nInteger> ) --> cBinaryInteger

LOG() :

Calculate the natural logarithm of a numeric value

LOG( <nExp> ) --> nNaturalLog

L2BIN() :

Convert a numeric value to a 32-bit binary integer

L2BIN( <nExp> ) --> cBinaryInteger

MOD()* :

Return dBASE III PLUS modulus of two numbers

MOD( <nDividend>, <nDivisor> ) --> nRemainder

ROUND() :

Return a value rounded to a specified number of digits

ROUND( <nNumber>, <nDecimals> ) --> nRounded

SQRT() :

Return the square root of a positive number

SQRT( <nNumber> ) --> nRoot

VAL() :

Convert a character number to numeric type

VAL( <cNumber> ) --> nNumber

String & Memo :

ALLTRIM() :

Remove leading and trailing spaces from character string

ALLTRIM( <cString> ) --> cTrimString

ASC() :

Convert a character to its ASCII value

ASC( <cExp> ) --> nCode

AT() :

Return the position of a substring within a string

AT( <cSearch>, <cTarget> ) --> nPosition

CHR() :

Convert an ASCII code to a character value

CHR( <nCode> ) --> cChar

HARDCR() :

Replace all soft CRs with hard CRs

HARDCR( <cString> ) --> cConvertedString

ISALPHA() :

Determine if the leftmost character is alphabetic

ISALPHA( <cString> ) --> lBoolean

ISDIGIT() :

Determine if the leftmost character is a digit

ISDIGIT( <cString> ) --> lBoolean

ISLOWER() :

Determine if the leftmost character is a lower case letter

ISLOWER( <cString> ) --> lBoolean

ISUPPER() :

Determine if the leftmost character is upper case

ISUPPER( <cString> ) --> lBoolean

LEFT() :

Extract a substring beginning with the first character

LEFT( <cString>, <nCount> ) --> cSubString

LOWER() :

Convert uppercase characters to lowercase

LOWER( <cString> ) --> cLowerString

LTRIM() :

Remove leading spaces from a character string

LTRIM( <cString> ) --> cTrimString

MEMOEDIT() :

Display or edit character strings and memo fields

MEMOEDIT( [ <cString> ],
    [ <nTop> ], [ <nLeft> ],
    [ <nBottom> ], [ <nRight> ],
    [ <lEditMode> ],
    [ <cUserFunction> ],
    [ <nLineLength> ],
    [ <nTabSize> ],
    [ <nTextBufferRow> ],
    [ <nTextBufferColumn> ],
    [ <nWindowRow> ],
    [ <nWindowColumn> ] ) --> cTextBuffer

MEMOLINE() :

Extract a line of text from character string or memo field

MEMOLINE( <cString>,
    [ <nLineLength> ],
    [ <nLineNumber> ],
    [ <nTabSize> ],
    [ <lWrap> ] ) --> cLine

MEMOREAD() :

Return the contents of a disk file as a character string

MEMOREAD( <cFile> ) --> cString

MEMOTRAN() :

Replace carriage return/line feeds in character strings

MEMOTRAN( <cString>,
    [ <cReplaceHardCR> ],
    [ <cReplaceSoftCR> ] ) --> cNewString

MEMOWRIT() :

Write a character string or memo field to a disk file

MEMOWRIT( <cFile>, <cString> ) --> lSuccess

MLCOUNT() :

Count the lines in a character string or memo field

MLCOUNT( <cString>, [ <nLineLength> ],  [ <nTabSize> ],
         [ <lWrap> ] ) --> nLines

MLCTOPOS() :

Return byte position based on line and column position

MLCTOPOS( <cText>, <nWidth>, <nLine>,
    <nCol>, [ <nTabSize> ], [ <lWrap> ] ) --> nPosition

MLPOS() :

Determine the position of a line in a memo field

MLPOS( <cString>, <nLineLength>,
     <nLine>, [ <nTabSize> ], [ <lWrap> ] ) --> nPosition

MPOSTOLC() :

Return line and column position based on byte position

MPOSTOLC( <cText>, <nWidth>, <nPos>,
     [ <nTabSize> ], [ <lWrap> ] ) --> aLineColumn

RAT() :

Return the position of the last occurrence of a substring

RAT( <cSearch>, <cTarget> ) --> nPosition

REPLICATE() :

Return a string repeated a specified number of times

REPLICATE( <cString>, <nCount> ) --> cRepeatedString

RIGHT() :

Return a substring beginning with rightmost character

RIGHT( <cString>, <nCount> ) --> cSubString

RTRIM() :

Remove trailing spaces from a character string

RTRIM( <cString> ) --> cTrimString

SET EXACT* :

Toggle exact matches for character strings

SET EXACT on | OFF | <xlToggle>

SOUNDEX() :

Convert a character string to soundex form

SOUNDEX( <cString> ) --> cSoundexString

SPACE() :

Return a string of spaces

SPACE( <nCount> ) --> cSpaces

STR() :

Convert a numeric expression to a character string

STR( <nNumber>, [ <nLength> ], [ <nDecimals> ] ) --> cNumber

STRTRAN() :

Search and replace characters within a character string

STRTRAN( <cString>, <cSearch>, [ <cReplace> ],
    [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ] ) --> cNewString

STUFF() :

Delete and insert characters in a string

STUFF( <cString>, <nStart>, <nDelete>, <cInsert> ) --> cNewString

SUBSTR() :

Extract a substring from a character string

SUBSTR( <cString>, <nStart>, [ <nCount> ] ) --> cSubstring

TRIM() :

Remove trailing spaces from a character string

TRIM( <cString> ) --> cTrimString

UPPER() :

Convert lowercase characters to uppercase

UPPER( <cString> ) --> cUpperString