Harbour All Function – L

L2Bin
LanguageAndNationMSG

LastDayOM
LastKey
LastRec
Left
Len
Log

Log10
Lower
LTrim

LUpdate

Harbour Math Functions

Abs

ACos

ASin

ATan

ATn2

Cos

CosH

DToR

Exp

Exponent 

Fact

Floor

GetPrec

hb_mathErBlock
hb_mathErMode
hb_mathGetErrMode
hb_mathGetHandler
hb_mathGetLastError
hb_mathIsMathErr
hb_mathResetError
hb_mathSetErrMode
hb_mathSetHandler

Infinity
Int
Log

Log10
Max

Mantissa
Min
Mod

Pi
Round

RToD

SetPrec

Sign

Sin

SinH
Sqrt

Tan

TanH

SET FIXED

SET FIXED

Category

Set the number of decimal position to be displayed

Syntax

      SET FIXED on | OFF | (<lFixed>)

Arguments

<lFixed> Logical expression for toggle

Description

This command activates a system wide fixed placement of decimals places shown for all numeric outputs. If the value of <lFixed> is a logical true (.T.), FIXED will be turned ON; otherwise it will be turned OFF.

When SET DECIMALS OFF is used, the following rules apply to the number of decimal placed displayed.

       Addition         Same as operand with the greatest 
                        number of decimal digits
       Subtraction      Same as operand with the greatest 
                        number of decimal digits
       Multiplication   Sum of operand decimal digits
       Division         Determined by SET DECIMAL TO
       Exponential      Determined by SET DECIMAL TO
       Log()            Determined by SET DECIMAL TO
       Exp()            Determined by SET DECIMAL TO
       Sqrt()           Determined by SET DECIMAL TO
       Val()            Determined by SET DECIMAL TO

Examples

      SET FIXED ON
      ? 25141251 / 362
      SET FIXED OFF

Compliance

Clipper

Seealso

SET DECIMALS, Exp(), Log(), Sqrt(), Val(), Set()

Log()

LOG()

Returns the natural logarithm of a number.

Syntax

      LOG( <nNumber> ) --> <nLog>

Arguments

<nNumber> Any numeric expression.

Returns

<nExponent> The natural logarithm of <nNumber>.

Description

This function returns the natural logarithm of the number <nNumber>. If <nNumber> is 0 or less than 0, a numeric overflow occurs, which is depicted on the display device as a series of asterisks. This function is the inverse of EXP().

Examples

      ? LOG( 632512 )

Compliance

Clipper

Platforms

All

Files

Library is rtl

Seealso

EXP()

C5_LOG

 LOG()
 Calculate the natural logarithm of a numeric value
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Syntax

     LOG(<nExp>) --> nNaturalLog

 Arguments

     <nExp> is a numeric value greater than zero to be converted to its
     natural logarithm.

 Returns

     LOG() returns the natural logarithm as a numeric value.  If <nExp> is
     less than or equal to zero, LOG() returns a numeric overflow (displayed
     as a row of asterisks).

 Description

     LOG() is a numeric function that calculates the natural logarithm of a
     number and is the inverse of EXP().  The natural logarithm has a base of
     e which is approximately 2.7183.  The LOG() function returns x in the
     following equation,

     e**x = y

     where y is the numeric expression used as the LOG() argument (i.e.,
     LOG(y) = x).  Due to mathematical rounding, the values returned by LOG()
     and EXP() may not agree exactly (i.e., EXP(LOG(x)) may not always equal
     x).

 Examples

     .  These examples demonstrate various results of LOG():

        ? LOG(10)                  // Result: 2.30
        ? LOG(10 * 2)            // Result: 3.00
        ? EXP(LOG(1))            // Result: 1.00
        ? LOG(2.71)               // Result: 1.00

     .  This example is a user-defined function that returns the base
        10 logarithm:

        FUNCTION Log10( nNumber )
        IF nNumber > 0
           RETURN LOG(nNumber)/LOG(10)
        ELSE
           RETURN NIL
        ENDIF

 Files   Library is CLIPPER.LIB.

See Also: EXP() SET DECIMALS SET FIXED

 

Format of xBase Files

xBase File Format Description

xBase File Types

xBase File  Types and Extensions

Ext. File Type  Introduced or used by
.$$$ temporary file  dBASE III
.$db temporary file  dBASE IV
.act FoxDoc Action Diagrams  FoxPro
.app application object file  dBASE Appl. Generator
.app generated application  FoxPro
.bak Backup file  dBASE
.bar horizontal bar menu object file  dBASE Appl. Generator
.bin Binary files  dBASE
.bch batch process object file  dBASE Appl. Generator
.cac executable when caching on/off  dBASE IV
.cat catalog  dBASE III, IV
.cdx compound index  FoxPro
.ch header file  Clipper
.cht interface file for ChartMaster  dBASE
.clp compiler script file (clip list)  Clipper
.cmd command  dBASE – Waffle
.cod template source file  dBASE Appl. Generator
.cpt encrypted memo file  dBASE
.crp encrypted database  dBASE IV
.ctl control file  dBASE IV – Aldus Setup
.cvt backup file for CONVERTed database file  dBASE IV
.db configuration  dBASE
.db$ temporary file  dBASE
.db2 database  dBASE II
.db3 database  dBASE III
.dbf database file  dBASE – FoxPro
.dbk database backup  dBASE IV
.dbo compiled program  dBASE IV
.dbt FoxBASE+ style memo  FoxPro
.dbt memo file for database w/same name  dBASE – Clipper
.def Definitions list  dBASE
.dif Data Interchange Format. For APPEND FROM, COPY  dBASE – VisiCal
.doc Documentation text file  dBASE Appl. Generator
.fil files list object file  dBASE Appl. Generator
.fky macro file  FoxPro
.fmo compiled format file  dBASE IV
.fmt format file  dBASE – FoxPro – Clipper
.fp configuration file  FoxPro
.fpc catalog  FoxPro
.fpt memo  FoxPro
.fr3 renamed dBASE III+ form file  dBASE IV
.frg uncompiled report file, code fragment file  dBASE IV
.frm report file  dBASE – Clipper
.fro compiled report file  dBASE IV
.frt report memo  FoxPro
.frx report  FoxPro
.fw2 Framework spreadsheet or database file  Framework – dBASE
.fxp compiled format  FoxPro
.gen compiled template  dBASE Appl. Generator
.idx index (many)  FoxPro
.ind include index  dBASE IV
.inx index  FoxBase
.key Key macro library  dBASE
.lbg label generator data  dBASE IV
.lbl label  dBASE – Clipper
.lbo compiled label  dBASE IV
.lbt label memo  FoxPro
.lbx label  FoxPro
.ld1 overlay file  dBASE
.log Transaction log file  dBASE
.mbk multiple index file backup  dBASE IV
.mdx multiple index file  dBASE IV
.mem memory variable save file  dBASE – FoxPro
.mnt menu memo  FoxPro
.mnx menu  FoxPro
.mpr generated program  FoxPro
.mpx compiled menu program  FoxPro
.ndx index file  dBASE
.npi source for DGEN.EXE interpreter  dBASE Appl. Generator
.ntx index file  Clipper
.pjt project memo  FoxPro
.pjx project  FoxPro
.plb library  FoxPro
.pll pre-linked library  Clipper
.plt pre-linked transfer file  Clipper
.pop pop-up menu object  dBASE Appl. Generator
.ppo pre-processor output  Clipper
.pr2 printer driver  dBASE IV
.pr3 PostScript printer driver  dBASE IV
.prf printer driver  dBASE IV
.prg program source file  dBASE – FoxPro – Clipper
.prs procedure  dBASE IV
.prt Print dump  dBASE
.prx compiled program  FoxPro
.qbe saved query (Query By Example)  dBASE IV – Quattro Pro
.qbo compiled query  dBASE IV
.qpr generated query program  FoxPro
.qpx compiled query program  FoxPro
.qry query  dBASE IV
.res dBASE resources  dBASE IV
.rpd Rapid file. For IMPORT/EXPORT,APPEND  FROM, COPY  dBASE
.sc3 renamed dBASE III screen mask file  dBASE IV
.scr screen – screen snapshot  dBASE IV
.sct screen memo  FoxPro
.scx screen  FoxPro
.spr generated screen program  FoxPro
.spx compiled screen program  FoxPro
.str structure list object file  dBASE Appl. Generator
.t44 Temporary file for Sort or Index  dBASE IV
.tbk memo backup  dBASE IV – FoxPro
.tvf table view settings  dBASE
.upd update data  dBASE
.upo compiled update data  dBASE
.val values list object file  dBASE Appl. Generator
.vew view file  Clipper, Lotus Approach
.vue view  dBASE IV – FoxPro
.w44 temporary file for Sort or Index  dBASE
.wfm form object  dBASE Form Designer
.win window file  FoxPro – dBASE

Source :  http://www.clicketyclick.dk/databases/xbase/format/index.html

Notes:

–          Such a list can’t be perfect. Some item may be obsolete / forgotten and something may not exist when this list compiled.

–          “Clipper” may not include all versions of Clipper.

–          Most of Clipper files are supported by Harbour.