String Functions

AddASCII

AfterAtNum

AllTrim
Asc

ASCIISum

ASCPos
At

AtAdjust

AtNum
AtRepl
AtToken

BeforAtNum

Chr

CharAdd
CharAnd
CharEven
CharHist
CharList
CharMirr
CharMix
CharNoList
CharNot
CharOdd
CharOne
CharOnly
CharOr
CharPix
CharRela
CharRelRep
CharRem
CharRepl
CharRLL
CharRLR
CharSHL
CharSHR
CharSList
CharSort
CharSub
CharSwap
CharWin
CharXOR

CountLeft
CountRight
Descend
Empty
hb_At
hb_RAt
hb_ValToStr
IsAlpha
IsDigit
IsLower
IsUpper

JustLeft
JustRight

Left
Len
Lower
LTrim

NumAt
NumToken
PadLeft
PadRight

PadC
PadL
PadR

POSALPHA
POSCHAR
POSDEL
POSDIFF
POSEQUAL
POSINS
POSLOWER
POSRANGE
POSREPL
POSUPPER

RangeRem
RangeRepl

RAt

RemAll

RemLeft
RemRight
ReplAll

Replicate

ReplLeft

ReplRight

RestToken

Right
RTrim

SaveToken

SetAtLike
Space
Str

StrDiff

StrFormat

StrSwap

StrTran
StrZero
SubStr

TabExpand
TabPack

Token

TokenAt
TokenEnd
TokenExit
TokenInit
TokenLower
TokenNext
TokenNum
TokenSep
TokenUpper

Transform
Trim
Upper
Val

ValPos
WordOne
WordOnly
WordRem
WordRepl
WordSwap

WordToChar


Space()

Space()

Returns a string of blank spaces

Syntax

      Space( <nSize> ) --> cString

Arguments

<nSize> The length of the string

Returns

<cString> A string containing blank spaces

Description

This function returns a string consisting of <nSize> blank spaces. If the value of <nSize> is 0, a NULL string (“” ) will be returned.

This function is useful to declare the length of a character memory variable.

Examples

      PROCEDURE Main()
         LOCAL cBigString
         LOCAL cFirst
         LOCAL cString := Space( 20 )  // Create an character memory variable
                                       // with length 20
         ? Len( cString )      // 20
         cBigString := Space( 100000 ) // create a memory variable with 100000
                                       // blank spaces
         ? Len( cBigString )
         USE tests NEW
         cFirst := MakeEmpty( 1 )
         ? Len( cFirst )
         RETURN

      FUNCTION MakeEmpty( xField )
         LOCAL nRecord
         LOCAL xRetValue

         IF ! Empty( Alias() )
            nRecord := RecNo()
            dbGoto( 0 )
            IF ValType( xField ) == "C"
               xField := AScan( dbStruct(),  {| aFields | aFields[ 1 ] == Upper( xfield ) } )
            ELSE
               DEFAULT xField TO 0
               IF xField < 1 .OR. xField > FCount()
                  xfield := 0
               ENDIF
            ENDIF
            IF !( xfield == 0 )
               xRetvalue := FieldGet( xfield )
            ENDIF
            dbGoto( nrecord )
         ENDIF
         RETURN xRetvalue

Compliance

Clipper

Platforms

All(64K)

Files

Library is core

Seealso

PadC(), PadL(), PadR(), Replicate()

Replicate()

REPLICATE()

Repeats a single character expression

Syntax

      REPLICATE( <cString>, <nSize> )  --> cReplicateString

Arguments

<cString> Character string to be replicated

<nSize> Number of times to replicate <cString>

Returns

<cReplicateString> A character expression contain the <cString> fill character.

Description

This function returns a string composed of <nSize> repetitions of <cString>. The length of the character string returned by this function is limited to the memory available.

A value of 0 for <nSize> will return a NULL string.

Examples

      ? REPLICATE( "a", 10 )      // aaaaaaaaaa
      ? REPLICATE( "b", 100000 )

Tests

      See Examples

Compliance

Clipper

Platforms

All (64K)

Files

Library is rtl

Seealso

SPACE(), PADC(), PADL(), PADR()

PadR()

PADR()

Right-justifies an expression for a given width

Syntax

      PADR( <xVal>, <nWidth>, <cFill> ) --> cString

Arguments

<xVal> A Number, Character or Date value to pad

<nWidth> Width of output string

<cFill> Character to fill in the string

Returns

<cString> The right-justifies string of <xVal>

Description

This function takes an date, number, or character expression <xVal> and attempt to right-justify it within a string of a given width expressed as <nWidth>. The default character used to pad right side of <xVal> will be an blank space; however, this character may be explicitly specified the value of <cFill>.

If the length of <xVal> is longer then <nWidth>, this function will truncate the string <xVal> from the leftmost side to the length of <nWidth>.

Examples

      ? PADR( "Harbour", 20 )
      ? PADR( 34.5142, 20 )
      ? PADR( Date(), 35 )

Tests

      See examples

Compliance

Clipper

Platforms

All

Files

Library is rtl

Seealso

ALLTRIM(), PADC(), PADL()

PadC()

PADC()

Centers an expression for a given width

Syntax

      PADC( <xVal>, <nWidth>, <cFill> )  --> cString

Arguments

<xVal> A Number, Character or Date value to pad

<nWidth> Width of output string

<cFill> Character to fill in the string

Returns

<cString> The Center string of <xVal>

Description

This function takes an date, number or character expression <xVal> and attempt to center the expression within a string of a given width expressed as <nWidth>. The default character used to pad either side of <xVal> will be a blank space. This character may be explicitly specified the value of <cFill>.

If the length of <xVal> is longer then <nWidth>, this function will truncate the string <xVal> from the leftmost side to the length of <nWidth>.

Examples

      ? PADC( "Harbour", 20 )
      ? PADC( 34.5142, 20 )
      ? PADC( Date(), 35 )

Tests

      See Examples

Compliance

Clipper

Platforms

All

Files

Library is rtl

Seealso

ALLTRIM(), PADL(), PADR()

C5_PAD

 PAD()
 Pad character, date, and numeric values with a fill character
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Syntax

     PADL(<exp>, <nLength>, [<cFillChar>])
        --> cPaddedString
     PADC(<exp>, <nLength>, [<cFillChar>])
        --> cPaddedString
     PADR(<exp>, <nLength>, [<cFillChar>])
        --> cPaddedString

 Arguments

     <exp> is a character, numeric, or date value to be padded with a
     fill character.

     <nLength> is the length of the character string to be returned.

     <cFillChar> is the character with which to pad <exp>.  If not
     specified, the default is a space character.

 Returns

     PADC(), PADL(), and PADR() return the result of <exp> as a character
     string padded with <cFillChar> to a total length of <nLength>.

 Description

     PADC(), PADL(), and PADR() are character functions that pad character,
     date, and numeric values with a fill character to create a new character
     string of a specified length.  PADC() centers <exp> within <nLength>
     adding fill characters to the left and right sides; PADL() adds fill
     characters on the left side; and PADR() adds fill characters on the
     right side.  If the length of <exp> exceeds <nLength>, all of the PAD()
     functions truncate cPaddedString to <nLength>.

     PADC(), PADL(), and PADR() display variable length strings within a
     fixed length area.  They can be used, for instance, to ensure alignment
     with consecutive ?? commands.  Another use is to display text to a fixed-
     width screen area assuring that previous text is completely overwritten.

     PADC(), PADL(), and PADR() are the inverse of the ALLTRIM(), RTRIM(),
     and LTRIM() functions which trim leading and trailing space from
     character strings.

 Examples

     .  This example uses PADR() to format a record number display on
        a status line filling the allocated space:

        IF EOF()
           @ 23, 45 PADR("EOF/" + LTRIM(STR(LASTREC())), 20)
        ELSEIF BOF()
           @ 23, 45 PADR("BOF/" + LTRIM(STR(LASTREC())), 20)
        ELSE
           @ 23, 45 SAY PADR("Record " + LTRIM(STR(RECNO()) ;
                 + "/" + LTRIM(STR(LASTREC())), 20)
        ENDIF

 Files   Library is EXTEND.LIB.

See Also: RTRIM()

 

Uniform Arrays

 

If a multi-dimension array

–          have a fixed number elements in each dimension and

–          each column contains the same type of information for each row in array

called “uniform”.

This structure is similar to a table structure.

Built-in functions DBSTRUCT() and DIRECTORY() produces uniform arrays.

Array produced by DBSTRUCT() will have field count  in size and the structure of an array is:

Field Name  C
Field Type  C
Field Width N
Field Dec   N

And DIRECTORY() function produces an array with elements as file count and with this structure:

File Name        C
File Size        N
File Date        D
File Time        C
File Attributes  C

Building, maintaining and using those arrays is simple as possible.

Let’s look at a sample .prg:

-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._
#include "directry.ch"
#include "dbstruct.ch"
PROCEDURE Main()
  SET DATE GERM
  SET CENT ON
 
  ?
  ? "Uniform arrays :" 
  ?
 
  ?
  ? " Directory file list :"
  ?
 
  FileList()
 
  ?
  ? " Table structure list :"
  ?
  IF MakUseTable()
     DispStru() 
  ELSE
     ? "Couldn't USE or Make th table." 
  ENDIF
 
  ?
  @ MAXROW(), 0
  WAIT "EOF UF_Arrays.prg"
 
RETURN // UF_Arrays.Main
*-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._

PROCEDURE FileList()
  LOCAL aFList := DIRECTORY( "C:\Harbour\*.*" )
  LOCAL a1File
 
  FOR EACH a1File IN aFList 
     ? SPACE( 4 ),;
       PAD( a1File[ F_NAME ], 13 ),; /* File name */ 
       TRAN( a1File[ F_SIZE ], "999,999,999" ),; /* File size */
       a1File[ F_DATE ],; /* File date */
       a1File[ F_TIME ],; /* File time */
       a1File[ F_ATTR ] /* File attribute */
 NEXT
 
RETURN // FileList()
 
*-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._
FUNCTION MakUseTable() 
 
  LOCAL cTablName := "CUSTOMER.DBF"
  LOCAL lRetval, aStru 
 
  IF FILE( cTablName ) 
     USE (cTablName)
  ELSE
     aStru := { { "CUST_ID",    "C",  5, 0 },;
                { "CUST_NAME",  "C", 10, 0 },;
                { "CUST_SNAM",  "C", 10, 0 },;
                { "CUST_FDAT",  "D",  8, 0 },;
                { "CUST_ACTV",  "L",  1, 0 },;
                { "CUST_BLNCE", "N", 11, 2 } }
    * 
    * 5-th parameter of DBCREATE() is alias - 
    * if not given then WA is open without alias 
    *                              ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
    DBCREATE( cTablName, aStru, , .F., "CUSTOMER" ) 
 ENDIF 
 
 lRetval := ( ALIAS() == "CUSTOMER" )
 
RETURN lRetval // MakUseTable()
*-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._
PROCEDURE DispStru()
   LOCAL nTotal := 1
 
   IF SELECT() > 0
      aStructur := DBSTRUCT()
      ? SPACE( 4 ), "No: Field Name Type Width Dec"
      ? SPACE( 4 ), "--- ---------- ---- ----- ---"
      AEVAL( aStructur, { | aF1, nFNo | ;
             QOUT( SPACE( 4 ),; // Left Marj 
                   PADL( nFNo, 3 ),; // Field No
                   PADR( aF1[ DBS_NAME ], 11 ),; // Field Name
                   PADC( aF1[ DBS_TYPE ], 4 ),; // Field Type
                   PADL( aF1[ DBS_LEN ], 4 ),; // Field Len
                   PADL( aF1[ DBS_DEC ], 3 )),; // Field Dec 
             nTotal += aF1[ 3 ] } )
 
      ? SPACE( 4 ), "--- ---------- ---- ----- ---"
      ? SPACE( 4 ), "** Total ** ", TRAN( nTotal, "9,999" )
   ELSE
      ? "Current work area is empty"
   ENDIF 
 
RETURN // DispStru()
*-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._
 
UF_Arrays