C5_RAT

 RAT()
 Return the position of the last occurrence of a substring
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Syntax

     RAT(<cSearch>, <cTarget>) --> nPosition

 Arguments

     <cSearch> is the character string to be located.

     <cTarget> is the character string to be searched.

 Returns

     RAT() returns the position of <cSearch> within <cTarget> as an integer
     numeric value.  If <cSearch> is not found, RAT() returns zero.

 Description

     RAT() is a character function that returns the position of the last
     occurrence of a character substring within another character string.  It
     does this by searching the target string from the right.  RAT() is like
     the AT() function, which returns the position of the first occurrence of
     a substring within another string.  RAT() is also like the $ operator,
     which determines whether a substring is contained within a string.

     Both the RAT() and AT() functions are used with SUBSTR(), LEFT(), and
     RIGHT() to extract substrings.

 Examples

     .  This example uses RAT() to create a user-defined function,
        FilePath(), that extracts the path from a file specification.  If the
        path is unspecified, FilePath() returns a null string (""):

        ? FilePath("C:\DBF\Sales.dbf")      // Result: C:\DBF\

        FUNCTION FilePath( cFile )
           LOCAL nPos, cFilePath
           IF (nPos := RAT("\", cFile)) != 0
              cFilePath = SUBSTR(cFile, 1, nPos)
           ELSE
              cFilePath = ""
           ENDIF
           RETURN cFilePath

 Files   Library is EXTEND.LIB.

See Also: RIGHT() STRTRAN() SUBSTR()

 

C5 Data Manipulation Functions

Array :

AADD() :

Add a new element to the end of an array

AADD( <aTarget>, <expValue> ) --> Value

ACLONE() :

Duplicate a nested or multidimensional array

ACLONE( <aSource> ) --> aDuplicate

ACOPY() :

Copy elements from one array to another

ACOPY( <aSource>, <aTarget>, [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ], 
    [ <nTargetPos> ] ) --> aTarget

ADEL() :

Delete an array element

ADEL( <aTarget>, <nPosition> ) --> aTarget

ADIR()* :

Fill a series of arrays with directory information

ADIR([ <cFilespec> ],
    [ <aFilenames> ],
    [ <aSizes> ],
    [ <aDates> ],
    [ <aTimes> ],
    [ <aAttributes> ] ) --> nFiles

AEVAL() :

Execute a code block for each element in an array

AEVAL( <aArray>, <bBlock>, [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ] ) --> aArray

AFILL() :

Fill an array with a specified value

AFILL( <aTarget>, <expValue>, [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ] )
       --> aTarget

AINS() :

Insert a NIL element into an array

AINS( <aTarget>, <nPosition> ) --> aTarget

ARRAY() :

Create an uninitialized array of specified length

ARRAY( <nElements> [, <nElements>...] ) --> aArray

ASCAN() :

Scan an array for a value or until a block returns (.T.)

ASCAN( <aTarget>, <expSearch>, [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ] )
      --> nStoppedAt

ASIZE() :

Grow or shrink an array

ASIZE( <aTarget>, <nLength> ) --> aTarget

ASORT() :

Sort an array

ASORT( <aTarget>, [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ], [ <bOrder> ] )
       --> aTarget

ATAIL() :

Return value of the highest numbered (last) element of an array

ATAIL( <aArray> ) --> Element

Common :

EMPTY() :

Determine if the result of an expression is empty

EMPTY( <exp> ) --> lEmpty

LEN() :

Return the length of a character string or array size

LEN( <cString> | <aArray> ) --> nCount

MAX() :

Return the larger of two numeric or date values

MAX( <nExp1>, <nExp2> ) --> nLarger
MAX( <dExp1>, <dExp2> ) --> dLarger

MIN() :

Return the smaller of two numeric or date values

MIN( <nExp1>, <nExp2> ) --> nSmaller
MIN( <dExp1>, <dExp2> ) --> dSmaller

PAD() :

Pad character, date or numeric values with a fill character

PADL( <exp>, <nLength>, [ <cFillChar> ] ) --> cPaddedString
PADC( <exp>, <nLength>, [ <cFillChar> ] ) --> cPaddedString
PADR( <exp>, <nLength>, [ <cFillChar> ] ) --> cPaddedString

TRANSFORM() :

Convert any value into a formatted character string

TRANSFORM( <exp>, <cSayPicture> ) --> cFormatString

TYPE() :

Determine the type of an expression

TYPE( <cExp> ) --> cType

VALTYPE() :

Determine the data type returned by an expression

VALTYPE( <exp> ) --> cType

Date & Time :

CDOW() :

Convert a date value to a character day of the week

CDOW( <dExp> ) --> cDayName

CMONTH() :

Convert a date to a character month name

CMONTH( <dDate> ) --> cMonth

CTOD() :

Convert a date string to a date value

CTOD( <cDate> ) --> dDate

DATE() :

Return the system date as a date value

DATE() --> dSystem

DAY() :

Return the day of the month as a numeric value

DAY( <dDate> ) --> nDay

DOW() :

Convert a date value to a numeric day of the week

DOW( <dDate> ) --> nDay

DTOC() :

Convert a date value to a character string

DTOC( <dDate> ) --> cDate

DTOS() :

Convert a date value to a string formatted as yyyymmdd

DTOS( <dDate> ) --> cDate

MONTH() :

Convert a date value to the number of the month

MONTH( <dDate> ) --> nMonth

SECONDS() :

Return the number of seconds elapsed since midnight

SECONDS() --> nSeconds

TIME() :

Return the system time

TIME() --> cTimeString

YEAR() :

Convert a date value to the year as a numeric value

YEAR( <dDate> ) --> nYear

Numeric :

ABS() :

Return the absolute value of a numeric expression

ABS( <nExp> ) --> nPositive

BIN2I() :

Convert a 16-bit signed integer to a numeric value

BIN2I( <cSignedInt> ) --> nNumber

BIN2L() :

Convert a 32-bit signed integer to a numeric value

BIN2L( <cSignedInt> ) --> nNumber

BIN2W() :

Convert a 16-bit unsigned integer to a numeric value

BIN2W( <cUnsignedInt> ) --> nNumber

EXP() :

Calculate e**x

EXP( <nExponent> ) --> nAntilogarithm

INT() :

Convert a numeric value to an integer

INT( <nExp> ) --> nInteger

I2BIN() :

Convert a numeric to a 16-bit binary integer

I2BIN( <nInteger> ) --> cBinaryInteger

LOG() :

Calculate the natural logarithm of a numeric value

LOG( <nExp> ) --> nNaturalLog

L2BIN() :

Convert a numeric value to a 32-bit binary integer

L2BIN( <nExp> ) --> cBinaryInteger

MOD()* :

Return dBASE III PLUS modulus of two numbers

MOD( <nDividend>, <nDivisor> ) --> nRemainder

ROUND() :

Return a value rounded to a specified number of digits

ROUND( <nNumber>, <nDecimals> ) --> nRounded

SQRT() :

Return the square root of a positive number

SQRT( <nNumber> ) --> nRoot

VAL() :

Convert a character number to numeric type

VAL( <cNumber> ) --> nNumber

String & Memo :

ALLTRIM() :

Remove leading and trailing spaces from character string

ALLTRIM( <cString> ) --> cTrimString

ASC() :

Convert a character to its ASCII value

ASC( <cExp> ) --> nCode

AT() :

Return the position of a substring within a string

AT( <cSearch>, <cTarget> ) --> nPosition

CHR() :

Convert an ASCII code to a character value

CHR( <nCode> ) --> cChar

HARDCR() :

Replace all soft CRs with hard CRs

HARDCR( <cString> ) --> cConvertedString

ISALPHA() :

Determine if the leftmost character is alphabetic

ISALPHA( <cString> ) --> lBoolean

ISDIGIT() :

Determine if the leftmost character is a digit

ISDIGIT( <cString> ) --> lBoolean

ISLOWER() :

Determine if the leftmost character is a lower case letter

ISLOWER( <cString> ) --> lBoolean

ISUPPER() :

Determine if the leftmost character is upper case

ISUPPER( <cString> ) --> lBoolean

LEFT() :

Extract a substring beginning with the first character

LEFT( <cString>, <nCount> ) --> cSubString

LOWER() :

Convert uppercase characters to lowercase

LOWER( <cString> ) --> cLowerString

LTRIM() :

Remove leading spaces from a character string

LTRIM( <cString> ) --> cTrimString

MEMOEDIT() :

Display or edit character strings and memo fields

MEMOEDIT( [ <cString> ],
    [ <nTop> ], [ <nLeft> ],
    [ <nBottom> ], [ <nRight> ],
    [ <lEditMode> ],
    [ <cUserFunction> ],
    [ <nLineLength> ],
    [ <nTabSize> ],
    [ <nTextBufferRow> ],
    [ <nTextBufferColumn> ],
    [ <nWindowRow> ],
    [ <nWindowColumn> ] ) --> cTextBuffer

MEMOLINE() :

Extract a line of text from character string or memo field

MEMOLINE( <cString>,
    [ <nLineLength> ],
    [ <nLineNumber> ],
    [ <nTabSize> ],
    [ <lWrap> ] ) --> cLine

MEMOREAD() :

Return the contents of a disk file as a character string

MEMOREAD( <cFile> ) --> cString

MEMOTRAN() :

Replace carriage return/line feeds in character strings

MEMOTRAN( <cString>,
    [ <cReplaceHardCR> ],
    [ <cReplaceSoftCR> ] ) --> cNewString

MEMOWRIT() :

Write a character string or memo field to a disk file

MEMOWRIT( <cFile>, <cString> ) --> lSuccess

MLCOUNT() :

Count the lines in a character string or memo field

MLCOUNT( <cString>, [ <nLineLength> ],  [ <nTabSize> ],
         [ <lWrap> ] ) --> nLines

MLCTOPOS() :

Return byte position based on line and column position

MLCTOPOS( <cText>, <nWidth>, <nLine>,
    <nCol>, [ <nTabSize> ], [ <lWrap> ] ) --> nPosition

MLPOS() :

Determine the position of a line in a memo field

MLPOS( <cString>, <nLineLength>,
     <nLine>, [ <nTabSize> ], [ <lWrap> ] ) --> nPosition

MPOSTOLC() :

Return line and column position based on byte position

MPOSTOLC( <cText>, <nWidth>, <nPos>,
     [ <nTabSize> ], [ <lWrap> ] ) --> aLineColumn

RAT() :

Return the position of the last occurrence of a substring

RAT( <cSearch>, <cTarget> ) --> nPosition

REPLICATE() :

Return a string repeated a specified number of times

REPLICATE( <cString>, <nCount> ) --> cRepeatedString

RIGHT() :

Return a substring beginning with rightmost character

RIGHT( <cString>, <nCount> ) --> cSubString

RTRIM() :

Remove trailing spaces from a character string

RTRIM( <cString> ) --> cTrimString

SET EXACT* :

Toggle exact matches for character strings

SET EXACT on | OFF | <xlToggle>

SOUNDEX() :

Convert a character string to soundex form

SOUNDEX( <cString> ) --> cSoundexString

SPACE() :

Return a string of spaces

SPACE( <nCount> ) --> cSpaces

STR() :

Convert a numeric expression to a character string

STR( <nNumber>, [ <nLength> ], [ <nDecimals> ] ) --> cNumber

STRTRAN() :

Search and replace characters within a character string

STRTRAN( <cString>, <cSearch>, [ <cReplace> ],
    [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ] ) --> cNewString

STUFF() :

Delete and insert characters in a string

STUFF( <cString>, <nStart>, <nDelete>, <cInsert> ) --> cNewString

SUBSTR() :

Extract a substring from a character string

SUBSTR( <cString>, <nStart>, [ <nCount> ] ) --> cSubstring

TRIM() :

Remove trailing spaces from a character string

TRIM( <cString> ) --> cTrimString

UPPER() :

Convert lowercase characters to uppercase

UPPER( <cString> ) --> cUpperString