>= Greater than or equal

 


 >=
 Greater than or equal--binary                   (Relational)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Syntax

     <exp1> >= <exp2>

 Type

     Character, date, logical, memo, numeric

 Operands

     <exp1> and <exp2> are expressions of any data type to be
     compared.

 Description

     The greater than or equal to operator (>=) is a binary operator that
     compares two values of the same data type and returns true (.T.) if
     <exp1> is greater than or equal to <exp2>.

     .  Character:  The comparison is based on the underlying ASCII
        code.  ASCII codes for alphabetic characters are ascending (e.g., the
        code for "A" is 65 and the code for "Z" is 90).

     .  Date: Dates are compared according to the underlying date
        value.

     .  Logical: True (.T.) is greater than false (.F.).

     .  Memo: Treated the same as character.

     .  Numeric: Compared based on magnitude.

 Examples

     .  These examples illustrate how the greater than or equal
        operator (>=) behaves with different data types:

        // Character
        ? "Z" >= "A"             // Result: .T.

        ? "AZ" >= "A"            // Result: .T.
        ? "A" >= "AZ"            // Result: .F.

        // Date
        ? CTOD("12/12/88") >= ;
           CTOD("12/11/88")      // Result: .T.

        // Logical
        ? .T. >= .F.             // Result: .T.

        // Numeric
        ? 2 >= 1                 // Result: .T.
        ? 1 >= 2                 // Result: .F.
        ? 2 >= 2                 // Result: .T.

See Also: $ < <= <> = (equality) == >

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> Greater than

 


 >
 Greater than--binary                            (Relational)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Syntax

     <exp1> > <exp2>

 Type

     Character, date, logical, memo, numeric

 Operands

     <exp1> and <exp2> are expressions of any type to be compared.

 Description

     The greater than (>) operator compares two values of the same data type
     and returns true (.T.) if <exp1> is greater than <exp2>.

     .  Character: The comparison is based on the underlying ASCII
        code.  ASCII codes for alphabetic characters are ascending (e.g., the
        code for "A" is 65 and the code for "Z" is 90).

     .  Date: Dates are compared according to the underlying date
        value.

     .  Logical: True (.T.) is greater than false (.F.).

     .  Memo: Treated the same as character.

     .  Numeric: Compared based on magnitude.

 Examples

     .  These examples illustrate how the greater than operator (>)
        behaves with different data types:

        // Character
        ? "Z" > "A"             // Result: .T.
        ? "AZ" > "A"            // Result: .F.
        ? "A" > "AZ"            // Result: .F.

        // Date

        ? CTOD("12/12/88") > ;
           CTOD("12/11/88")     // Result: .T.

        // Logical
        ? .T. > .F.             // Result: .T.

        // Numeric
        ? 2 > 1                 // Result: .T.
        ? 1 > 2                 // Result: .F.

See Also: $ < <= <> = (equality) == >=

 

== Exactly equal

 


 ==
 Exactly equal--binary                           (Relational)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Syntax

     <exp1> == <exp2>

 Type

     All

 Operands

     <exp1> and <exp2> are expressions of the same data type to be
     compared.

 Description

     The exactly equal operator (==) is a binary operator that compares two
     values of the same data type for exact equality depending on the data
     type.  It returns true (.T.) if <exp1> is equal to <exp2> according to
     the following rules:

     .  Array:  Compares for identity.  If <exp1> and <exp2> are
        variable references to the same array, returns true (.T.); otherwise,
        returns
        false (.F.).

     .  Character:  Comparison is based on the underlying ASCII code.
        ASCII codes for alphabetic characters are ascending (e.g., the code
        for "A" is 65 and the code for "Z" is 90).  Unlike the relational
        equality operator (=) , true (.T.) is returned if <exp1> and <exp2>
        are exactly equal including trailing spaces; otherwise, the
        comparison returns false (.F.).  SET EXACT has no effect.

     .  Date:  Dates are compared according to the underlying date
        value; behaves the same as the relational equality operator (=).

     .  Logical:  True (.T.) is exactly equal to true (.T.), and false
        (.F.) is exactly equal to false (.F.).

     .  Memo:  Treated the same as character.

     .  NIL:  True (.T.) if compared to a NIL value; false (.F.) if
        compared to a value of any other data type.

     .  Numeric:  Compared based on magnitude; behaves the same as the
        relational equality operator (=).

     .  Object: Treated the same as array.

 Examples

     .  These examples illustrate how the == operator behaves with
        different data types:

        // Character
        ? "A" == "A"             // Result: .T.
        ? "Z" == "A"             // Result: .F.
        ? "A" == "A "            // Result: .F.
        ? "AA" == "A"            // Result: .F.

        // Array or object

        aOne := { 1, 2, 3 }
        aTwo := { 1, 2, 3 }
        aThree := aOne
        ? aOne == aTwo           // Result: .F.
        // values within the arrays are equal, but the arrays,
        // themselves, are separate and distinct
        ? aOne == aThree         // Result: .T.

See Also: $ < <= <> = (equality) > >=

= (equality) Equal

= (equality)
 Equal--binary                                   (Relational)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Syntax

     <exp1> = <exp2>

 Type

     Character, date, logical, memo, NIL, numeric

 Operands

     <exp1> and <exp2> are expressions of the same data type to
     compare.

 Description

     The equal operator (= ) compares two values of the same data type and
     returns true (.T.) if <exp1> is equal to <exp2> according to the
     following rules:

     .  Character:  The comparison is based on the underlying ASCII
        code.  ASCII codes for alphabetic characters are ascending (e.g., the
        code for "A" is 65 and the code for "Z" is 90).

        When EXACT is OFF, two character strings are compared according to
        the following rules.  assume two character strings, cLeft and cRight,
        where the expression to test is (cLeft = cRight):

        -  If cRight is null, returns true (.T.).

        -  If LEN(cRight) is greater than LEN(cLeft), returns false
           (.F.).

        -  Compare all characters in cRight with cLeft.  If all
           characters in cRight equal cLeft, returns true (.T.); otherwise,
           returns false (.F.).

        With EXACT ON, two strings must match exactly except for trailing
        blanks.

     .  Date: Dates are compared according to the underlying date
        value.

     .  Logical: True (.T.) is equal to true (.T.) and false (.F.)
        equal to false (.F.).

     .  Memo: Treated the same as character.

     .  NIL: True (.T.) if compared to a NIL value; false (.F.) if
        compared to a value of any other data type.

     .  Numeric: Compared based on magnitude.

 Examples

     .  These examples illustrate how the equal operator (=) behaves
        with different data types:

        // Character
        SET EXACT ON
        ? "123" = "123  "        // Result: .T.
        ? " 123" = "123"         // Result: .F.
        SET EXACT OFF
        ? "123" = "12345"        // Result: .F.
        ? "12345" = "123"        // Result: .T.
        ? "123" = ""             // Result: .T.
        ? "" = "123"             // Result: .F.

        // Date
        ? CTOD("12/12/88") = ;
           CTOD("12/12/88")      // Result: .T.

        // Logical
        ? .T. = .T.              // Result: .T.
        ? .F. = .T.              // Result: .F.

        // NIL
        ? NIL = NIL              // Result: .T.
        ? NIL = 12               // Result: .F.
        ? NIL = CTOD("")         // Result: .F.

        // Numeric
        ? 2 = 1                  // Result: .F.
        ? 1 = 1                  // Result: .T.

See Also: $ < <= <> == > >=

!= # Not equal

 


 <> != #
 Not equal--binary                               (Relational)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Syntax

     <exp1> <> <exp2>
     <exp1> != <exp2>
     <exp1> #  <exp2>

 Type

     Character, date, logical, memo, NIL, numeric

 Operands

     <exp1> and <exp2> are expressions of the same data type or NIL
     to be compared for inequality.

 Description

     The not equal ( <>) operator compares two values of the same data type
     and returns true (.T.) if <exp1> is not equal to <exp2> according to the
     following rules:

     .  Character:  The comparison is based on the underlying ASCII
        code and is the inverse of the equal operator (=).  This means that
        the comparison is sensitive to the current EXACT SETting.  See the
        examples below.

     .  Date:  Dates are compared according to the underlying date
        value.

     .  Logical:  False (.F.) is not equal to true (.T.).

     .  Memo:  Treated the same as character.

     .  NIL:  All values compared to NIL other than NIL return true
        (.T.).

     .  Numeric:  Compared based on magnitude.

 Examples

     .  These examples illustrate how the not equal operator (<>)
        behaves with different data types:

        // Character
        SET EXACT ON
        ? "123" <> "12345"         // Result: .T.
        ? "12345" <> "123"         // Result: .T.
        ? "123" <> ""              // Result: .T.
        ? "" <> "123"              // Result: .T.
        SET EXACT OFF
        ? "123" <> "12345"         // Result: .T.
        ? "12345" <> "123"         // Result: .F.
        ? "123" <> ""              // Result: .F.
        ? "" <> "123"              // Result: .T.

        // Date
        ? CTOD("12/12/88") <> ;
           CTOD("12/12/88")        // Result: .F.

        // Logical
        ? .T. <> .T.               // Result: .F.
        ? .T. <> .F.               // Result: .T.

        // NIL
        ? NIL <> NIL               // Result: .F.
        ? NIL <> 12                // Result: .T.
        ? NIL <> "hello"           // Result: .T.

        // Numeric
        ? 2 <> 1                   // Result: .T.
        ? 1 <> 1                   // Result: .F.

See Also: $ < <= = (equality) == > >=

 

Substring comparison

 $
 Substring comparison--binary                    (Relational)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Syntax

     <cString1> $ <cString2>

 Type

     Character, memo

 Operands

     <cString1> is a character or memo value that is searched for in
     <cString2>.

     <cString2> is a character or memo value within which <cString1> is
     sought.

 Description

     The $ operator is a binary relational operator that performs a case-
     sensitive substring search and returns true (.T.) if <cString1> is found
     within <cString2>.

 Examples

     .  This example illustrates the case-sensitivity of the substring
        operator ($):

        ? "A" $ "ABC"            // Result: .T.
        ? "a" $ "ABC"            // Result: .F.

See Also: < <= <> = (equality) == > >=