STORE

STORE*

Assign a value to one or more variables

Syntax

      STORE <exp> TO <idVar list>
         <idVar> = <exp>
         <idVar> := [ <idVar2> := ...] <exp>

Arguments

<exp> is a value of any data type that is assigned to the specified variables.

TO <idVar list> defines a list of one or more local, static, public, private, or field variables that are assigned the value <exp>. If any <idVar> is not visible or does not exist, a private variable is created and assigned <exp>.

Description

STORE assigns a value to one or more variables of any storage class. The storage classes of Clipper variables are local, static, field, private, and public. STORE is identical to the simple assignment operators (=) and (:=). In fact, a STORE statement is preprocessed into an assignment statement using the inline operator (:=). Like all of the assignment operators, STORE assigns to the most recently declared and visible variable referenced by <idVar>. If, however, the variable reference is ambiguous (i.e., not declared at compile time or not explicitly qualified with an alias), it is assumed to be MEMVAR. At runtime, if no private or public variable exists with the specified name, a private variable is created.

To override a declaration, you can specify the <idVar> prefaced by an alias. If <idVar> is a field variable, use the name of the work area. For private and public variables, you can use the memory variable alias (MEMVAR->). To assign to a field variable in the currently selected work area (as opposed to a particular named work area), you can use the field alias (FIELD->).

As a matter of principle, all variables other than field variables should be declared. Preface field variables with the alias. Use of private and public variables is discouraged since they violate basic principles of modular programming and are much slower than local and static variables.

Note that the STORE command is a compatibility command and not recommended for any assignment operation. Clipper provides assignment operators that supersede the STORE command, including the inline assignment operator (:=), the increment and decrement operators (++) and (–), and the compound assignment operators (+=, -=, *=, /=). Refer to the Operators and Variables sections of the “Basic Concepts” chapter in the Programming and Utilities Guide for more information.

Notes

. Assigning a value to an entire array: In Clipper, neither the STORE command nor the assignment operators can assign a single value to an entire array. Use the AFILL() function for this purpose.

. Memo fields: Assigning a memo field to a variable assigns a character value to that variable.

Examples

      .  These statements create and assign values to undeclared
         private variables:

      STORE "string" TO cVar1, cVar2, cVar3
      cVar1:= "string2"
      cVar2:= MEMVAR->cVar1

      .  These statements assign multiple variables using both STORE
         and the inline assignment operator (:=).  The methods produce
         identical code:

      STORE "value" to cVar1, cVar2, cVar3
      cVar1 := cVar2 := cVar3 := "value"

      .  These statements assign values to the same field referenced
         explicitly with an alias.  The first assignment uses the field alias
         (FIELD->), where the second uses the actual alias name:

      USE Sales NEW
      FIELD->CustBal = 1200.98
      Sales->CustBal = 1200.98

Seealso

AFILL(), LOCAL, PRIVATE, PUBLIC, RELEASE, REPLACE

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CLEAR MEMORY

CLEAR MEMORY

Release all public and private variables

Syntax

      CLEAR MEMORY

Description

CLEAR MEMORY deletes both public and private memory variables from the memory variable table. It operates in contrast to RELEASE ALL, which does not actually delete public and private memory variables but assigns NIL to those whose scope is the current procedure. CLEAR MEMORY is the only way to delete all public memory variables from current memory. Local and static variables, however, are unaffected by CLEAR MEMORY.

For more information on variables, refer to the Variables section of the “Basic Concepts” chapter.

Seealso

RELEASE

CLEAR GETS

CLEAR GETS

Release Get objects from the current GetList array

Syntax

       CLEAR GETS

Description

CLEAR GETS explicitly releases all Get objects in the current and visible GetList array, and terminates the calling READ, releasing any remaining objects in the calling READ, if executed within a SET KEY procedure or a user-defined function invoked by a VALID clause. CLEAR GETS releases Get objects by assigning an empty array to the variable GetList. GetList is the name of the variable used to hold an array of Get objects for subsequent READ commands. There are two other mechanisms that automatically release Get objects: CLEAR specified without the SCREEN clause, and READ specified without the SAVE clause.

CLEAR GETS has two basic uses. First, it can be used to terminate a READ from a SET KEY procedure or VALID user-defined function. Second, it can be used to delete Get objects from the GetList array when you have not executed a READ or you have saved the Get objects by using READ SAVE.

Seealso

@…CLEAR, @…GET, CLOSE, READ, RELEASE, SET TYPEAHEAD

CLEAR ALL

CLEAR ALL*

Close files and release public and private variables

Syntax

      CLEAR ALL

Description

CLEAR ALL releases all public and private variables, closes all open databases and related files in all active work areas, and SELECTs work area 1. Related files are index, alternate, and memo files. CLEAR ALL, however, does not release local or static variables.

CLEAR ALL is a compatibility command and therefore not recommended. Its usage in Clipper is superseded by the command or function that performs the specific action you need. You can close files associated with work areas with one of the various forms of the CLOSE command. You can release private and public variables using the RELEASE command although explicitly releasing variables is discouraged in most instances. For more information on the scope and lifetime of variables, refer to the “Basic Concepts” chapter.

Seealso

CLEAR GETS, CLEAR MEMORY, CLOSE, RELEASE

C5_RELEASE

 RELEASE
 Delete public and private memory variables
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Syntax

     RELEASE <idMemvar list>
     RELEASE ALL [LIKE | EXCEPT <skeleton>]

 Arguments

     <idMemvar list> is a list of private or public variables or arrays
     to delete.

     ALL [LIKE|EXCEPT <skeleton>] defines the set of visible private
     memory variables to assign, or to exclude from assignment of, a NIL
     value.  <skeleton> is the wildcard mask to specify a group of memory
     variables to delete.  The wildcard characters supported are * and ?.

 Description

     RELEASE is a memory variable command that performs one of two actions
     depending on how it is specified.  If RELEASE is specified with
     <idMemvar list>, the specified public and private memory variables
     and/or arrays are deleted from memory.  Previous hidden instances
     (public or private variables defined in higher-level procedures) become
     accessible upon termination of the procedure where the variable was
     originally created.

     If RELEASE is specified with any form of the ALL clause, private memory
     variables created at the current procedure level are assigned a NIL and
     not deleted until the current procedure or user-defined function
     terminates.  Public variables are unaffected by this form of the RELEASE
     command.  To release public variables, you must RELEASE them explicitly
     or use CLEAR MEMORY.

     Local or static variables are not affected by the RELEASE command.
     Local variables are released automatically when the procedure or user-
     defined function (where the variables were declared) terminates.  Static
     variables cannot be released since they exist for the duration of the
     program.

 Files   Library is CLIPPER.LIB.

See Also: CLEAR MEMORY LOCAL PRIVATE PUBLIC QUIT



C5 Commands

 ?|??            Display one or more values to the console
 @...BOX         Draw a box on the screen
 @...CLEAR       Clear a rectangular region of the screen
 @...GET         Create a new Get object and display it
 @...PROMPT      Paint a menu item and define a message
 @...SAY         Display data at a specified screen or printer row and column
 @...TO          Draw a single- or double-line box
 ACCEPT*         Place keyboard input into a memory variable
 APPEND BLANK    Add a new record to the current database file
 APPEND FROM     Import records from a database (.dbf) file or ASCII text file
 AVERAGE         Average numeric expressions in the current work area
 CALL*           Execute a C or Assembler procedure
 CANCEL*         Terminate program processing
 CLEAR ALL*      Close files and release public and private variables
 CLEAR GETS      Release Get objects from the current GetList array
 CLEAR MEMORY    Release all public and private variables
 CLEAR SCREEN    Clear the screen and return the cursor home
 CLEAR TYPEAHEAD Empty the keyboard buffer
 CLOSE           Close a specific set of files
 COMMIT          Perform a solid-disk write for all active work areas
 CONTINUE        Resume a pending LOCATE
 COPY FILE       Copy a file to a new file or to a device
 COPY STRUCTURE  Copy the current .dbf structure to a new database (.dbf) file
 COPY STRU EXTE  Copy field definitions to a .dbf file
 COPY TO         Export records to a database (.dbf) file or ASCII text file
 COUNT           Tally records to a variable
 CREATE          Create an empty structure extended (.dbf) file
 CREATE FROM     Create a new .dbf file from a structure extended file
 DELETE          Mark records for deletion
 DELETE FILE     Remove a file from disk
 DELETE TAG      Delete a tag
 DIR*            Display a listing of files from a specified path
 DISPLAY         Display records to the console
 EJECT           Advance the printhead to top of form
 ERASE           Remove a file from disk
 FIND*           Search an index for a specified key value
 GO              Move the pointer to the specified identity
 INDEX           Create an index file
 INPUT*          Enter the result of an expression into a variable
 JOIN            Create a new database file by merging from two work areas
 KEYBOARD        Stuff a string into the keyboard buffer
 LABEL FORM      Display labels to the console
 LIST            List records to the console
 LOCATE          Search sequentially for a record matching a condition
 MENU TO         Execute a lightbar menu for defined PROMPTs
 NOTE*           Place a single-line comment in a program file
 PACK            Remove deleted records from a database file
 QUIT            Terminate program processing
 READ            Activate full-screen editing mode using Get objects
 RECALL          Restore records marked for deletion
 REINDEX         Rebuild open indexes in the current work area
 RELEASE         Delete public and private memory variables
 RENAME          Change the name of a file
 REPLACE         Assign new values to field variables
 REPORT FORM     Display a report to the console
 RESTORE         Retrieve memory variables from a memory (.mem) file
 RESTORE SCREEN* Display a saved screen
 RUN             Execute a DOS command or program
 SAVE            Save variables to a memory (.mem) file
 SAVE SCREEN*    Save the current screen to a buffer or variable
 SEEK            Search an order for a specified key value
 SELECT          Change the current work area
 SET ALTERNATE   Echo console output to a text file
 SET BELL        Toggle sounding of the bell during full-screen operations
 SET CENTURY     Modify the date format to include or omit century digits
 SET COLOR*      Define screen colors
 SET CONFIRM     Toggle required exit key to terminate GETs
 SET CONSOLE     Toggle console display to the screen
 SET CURSOR      Toggle the screen cursor on or off
 SET DATE        Set the date format for input and display
 SET DECIMALS    Set the number of decimal places to be displayed
 SET DEFAULT     Set the CA-Clipper default drive and directory
 SET DELETED     Toggle filtering of deleted records
 SET DELIMITERS  Toggle or define GET delimiters
 SET DESCENDING  Change the descending flag of the controlling order
 SET DEVICE      Direct @...SAYs to the screen or printer
 SET EPOCH       Control the interpretation of dates with no century digits
 SET ESCAPE      Toggle Esc as a READ exit key
 SET EXACT*      Toggle exact matches for character strings
 SET EXCLUSIVE*  Establish shared or exclusive USE of database files
 SET FILTER      Hide records not meeting a condition
 SET FIXED       Toggle fixing of the number of decimal digits displayed
 SET FORMAT*     Activate a format when READ is executed
 SET FUNCTION    Assign a character string to a function key
 SET INDEX       Open one or more order bags in the current work area
 SET INTENSITY   Toggle enhanced display of GETs and PROMPTs
 SET KEY         Assign a procedure invocation to a key
 SET MARGIN      Set the page offset for all printed output
 SET MEMOBLOCK   Change the block size for memo files
 SET MESSAGE     Set the @...PROMPT message line row
 SET OPTIMIZE    Change the setting that optimizes using open orders
 SET ORDER       Select the controlling order
 SET PATH        Specify the CA-Clipper search path for opening files
 SET PRINTER     Toggle echo of output to printer or set the print destination
 SET PROCEDURE*  Compile procedures and functions into the current object file
 SET RELATION    Relate two work areas by a key value or record number
 SET SCOPE       Change the boundaries for scoping keys in controlling order
 SET SCOPEBOTTOM Change bottom boundary for scoping keys in controlling order
 SET SCOPETOP    Change top boundary for scoping keys in controlling order
 SET SCOREBOARD  Toggle the message display from READ or MEMOEDIT()
 SET SOFTSEEK    Toggle relative seeking
 SET TYPEAHEAD   Set the size of the keyboard buffer
 SET UNIQUE*     Toggle inclusion of non-unique keys into an index
 SET WRAP*       Toggle wrapping of the highlight in menus
 SKIP            Move the record pointer to a new position
 SORT            Copy to a database (.dbf) file in sorted order
 STORE*          Assign a value to one or more variables
 SUM             Sum numeric expressions and assign results to variables
 TEXT*           Display a literal block of text
 TOTAL           Summarize records by key value to a database (.dbf) file
 TYPE            Display the contents of a text file
 UNLOCK          Release file/record locks set by the current user
 UPDATE          Update current database file from another database file
 USE             Open an existing database (.dbf) and its associated files
 WAIT*           Suspend program processing until a key is pressed
 ZAP             Remove all records from the current database file