Direct @...SAYs to the screen or printer

     SET DEVICE TO SCREEN | printer


     TO SCREEN directs all @...SAYs to the screen and is independent of
     the SET PRINTER and CONSOLE settings.

     TO PRINTER directs all @...SAYs to the device set with SET PRINTER
     TO.  This can include a local printer port, a network spooler, or a


     SET DEVICE directs the output of @...SAY commands to either the screen
     or the printer.  When DEVICE is SET TO PRINTER, @...SAY commands are
     sent to the printer and not echoed to the screen.  In addition, @...SAY
     commands observe the current SET MARGIN value.

     When sending @...SAYs to the printer, Clipper performs an automatic
     EJECT whenever the current printhead row position is less than the last
     print row position.  An EJECT resets PCOL() and PROW() values to zero.
     To reset PCOL() and PROW() to new values, use the SETPRC() function.

     To send @...SAYs to a file, use SET PRINTER TO <xcFile> with SET DEVICE


     .  This example directs @...SAYs to the printer:

        @ 2,10 SAY "Hello there"

     .  This example directs @...SAYs to a file:

        SET PRINTER TO Output.txt
        @ 10, 10 SAY "File is: Output.txt"
        @ 11, 10 SAY DATE()
        SET PRINTER TO            // Close the output file


 Files   Library is CLIPPER.LIB.


C5 Commands

 ?|??            Display one or more values to the console
 @...BOX         Draw a box on the screen
 @...CLEAR       Clear a rectangular region of the screen
 @...GET         Create a new Get object and display it
 @...PROMPT      Paint a menu item and define a message
 @...SAY         Display data at a specified screen or printer row and column
 @...TO          Draw a single- or double-line box
 ACCEPT*         Place keyboard input into a memory variable
 APPEND BLANK    Add a new record to the current database file
 APPEND FROM     Import records from a database (.dbf) file or ASCII text file
 AVERAGE         Average numeric expressions in the current work area
 CALL*           Execute a C or Assembler procedure
 CANCEL*         Terminate program processing
 CLEAR ALL*      Close files and release public and private variables
 CLEAR GETS      Release Get objects from the current GetList array
 CLEAR MEMORY    Release all public and private variables
 CLEAR SCREEN    Clear the screen and return the cursor home
 CLEAR TYPEAHEAD Empty the keyboard buffer
 CLOSE           Close a specific set of files
 COMMIT          Perform a solid-disk write for all active work areas
 CONTINUE        Resume a pending LOCATE
 COPY FILE       Copy a file to a new file or to a device
 COPY STRUCTURE  Copy the current .dbf structure to a new database (.dbf) file
 COPY STRU EXTE  Copy field definitions to a .dbf file
 COPY TO         Export records to a database (.dbf) file or ASCII text file
 COUNT           Tally records to a variable
 CREATE          Create an empty structure extended (.dbf) file
 CREATE FROM     Create a new .dbf file from a structure extended file
 DELETE          Mark records for deletion
 DELETE FILE     Remove a file from disk
 DELETE TAG      Delete a tag
 DIR*            Display a listing of files from a specified path
 DISPLAY         Display records to the console
 EJECT           Advance the printhead to top of form
 ERASE           Remove a file from disk
 FIND*           Search an index for a specified key value
 GO              Move the pointer to the specified identity
 INDEX           Create an index file
 INPUT*          Enter the result of an expression into a variable
 JOIN            Create a new database file by merging from two work areas
 KEYBOARD        Stuff a string into the keyboard buffer
 LABEL FORM      Display labels to the console
 LIST            List records to the console
 LOCATE          Search sequentially for a record matching a condition
 MENU TO         Execute a lightbar menu for defined PROMPTs
 NOTE*           Place a single-line comment in a program file
 PACK            Remove deleted records from a database file
 QUIT            Terminate program processing
 READ            Activate full-screen editing mode using Get objects
 RECALL          Restore records marked for deletion
 REINDEX         Rebuild open indexes in the current work area
 RELEASE         Delete public and private memory variables
 RENAME          Change the name of a file
 REPLACE         Assign new values to field variables
 REPORT FORM     Display a report to the console
 RESTORE         Retrieve memory variables from a memory (.mem) file
 RESTORE SCREEN* Display a saved screen
 RUN             Execute a DOS command or program
 SAVE            Save variables to a memory (.mem) file
 SAVE SCREEN*    Save the current screen to a buffer or variable
 SEEK            Search an order for a specified key value
 SELECT          Change the current work area
 SET ALTERNATE   Echo console output to a text file
 SET BELL        Toggle sounding of the bell during full-screen operations
 SET CENTURY     Modify the date format to include or omit century digits
 SET COLOR*      Define screen colors
 SET CONFIRM     Toggle required exit key to terminate GETs
 SET CONSOLE     Toggle console display to the screen
 SET CURSOR      Toggle the screen cursor on or off
 SET DATE        Set the date format for input and display
 SET DECIMALS    Set the number of decimal places to be displayed
 SET DEFAULT     Set the CA-Clipper default drive and directory
 SET DELETED     Toggle filtering of deleted records
 SET DELIMITERS  Toggle or define GET delimiters
 SET DESCENDING  Change the descending flag of the controlling order
 SET DEVICE      Direct @...SAYs to the screen or printer
 SET EPOCH       Control the interpretation of dates with no century digits
 SET ESCAPE      Toggle Esc as a READ exit key
 SET EXACT*      Toggle exact matches for character strings
 SET EXCLUSIVE*  Establish shared or exclusive USE of database files
 SET FILTER      Hide records not meeting a condition
 SET FIXED       Toggle fixing of the number of decimal digits displayed
 SET FORMAT*     Activate a format when READ is executed
 SET FUNCTION    Assign a character string to a function key
 SET INDEX       Open one or more order bags in the current work area
 SET INTENSITY   Toggle enhanced display of GETs and PROMPTs
 SET KEY         Assign a procedure invocation to a key
 SET MARGIN      Set the page offset for all printed output
 SET MEMOBLOCK   Change the block size for memo files
 SET MESSAGE     Set the @...PROMPT message line row
 SET OPTIMIZE    Change the setting that optimizes using open orders
 SET ORDER       Select the controlling order
 SET PATH        Specify the CA-Clipper search path for opening files
 SET PRINTER     Toggle echo of output to printer or set the print destination
 SET PROCEDURE*  Compile procedures and functions into the current object file
 SET RELATION    Relate two work areas by a key value or record number
 SET SCOPE       Change the boundaries for scoping keys in controlling order
 SET SCOPEBOTTOM Change bottom boundary for scoping keys in controlling order
 SET SCOPETOP    Change top boundary for scoping keys in controlling order
 SET SCOREBOARD  Toggle the message display from READ or MEMOEDIT()
 SET SOFTSEEK    Toggle relative seeking
 SET TYPEAHEAD   Set the size of the keyboard buffer
 SET UNIQUE*     Toggle inclusion of non-unique keys into an index
 SET WRAP*       Toggle wrapping of the highlight in menus
 SKIP            Move the record pointer to a new position
 SORT            Copy to a database (.dbf) file in sorted order
 STORE*          Assign a value to one or more variables
 SUM             Sum numeric expressions and assign results to variables
 TEXT*           Display a literal block of text
 TOTAL           Summarize records by key value to a database (.dbf) file
 TYPE            Display the contents of a text file
 UNLOCK          Release file/record locks set by the current user
 UPDATE          Update current database file from another database file
 USE             Open an existing database (.dbf) and its associated files
 WAIT*           Suspend program processing until a key is pressed
 ZAP             Remove all records from the current database file


PICTURE function / template

What is PICTURE function – template ?

@…SAY comand display data at a specified screen or printer row and column with syntax :

@ <nRow>, <nCol> SAY <exp> [PICTURE <cSayPicture>] [COLOR <cColorString>]

@…SAY command output can be formatted using the PICTURE clause with a <cSayPicture>. This performs the same action as the TRANSFORM() function. A <cSayPicture> may consist of a function and/or a template. A PICTURE function imposes a rule on the entire @…SAY output. A PICTURE template defines the length of the @…SAY output and the formatting rule for each position within the output.

Function string:

A PICTURE function string specifies formatting rules which apply to the SAY’s entire display value, rather than to particular character positions within it.

The function string consists of the @ character, followed by one or more additional characters, each of which has a particular meaning (see table below).

The function string must not contain spaces.

A function string may be specified alone or with a template string. If both are present, the function string must precede the template string, and the two must be separated by a single space.

SAY and TRANSFORM() PICTURE Format Functions
Function Action
B Displays numbers left-justified
C Displays CR after positive numbers
D Displays dates in SET DATE format
E Displays dates and numbers in British format
R Nontemplate characters are inserted
X Displays DB after negative numbers
Z Displays zeros as blanks
( Encloses negative numbers in parentheses
! Converts alphabetic characters to uppercase

 Template string:

A PICTURE template string specifies formatting rules on a character-by-character basis. The template string consists of a series of characters, some of which have special meanings (see table below). Each position in the template string corresponds to a position in the displayed SAY value. Characters in the template string that do not have assigned meanings are copied verbatim into the displayed SAY value. If you use the @R picture function, characters without special PICTURE template string meaning are inserted between characters of the display value; otherwise, they overwrite the corresponding characters of the display value. You may specify a template string alone or with a function string. If both are present, the function string must precede the template string, and the two must be separated by a single space.

SAY and TRANSFORM() Template Symbols
Template Action
A,N,X,9,# Displays digits for any data type
L Displays logicals as "T" or "F"
Y Displays logicals as "Y" or "N"
! Converts alphabetic characters to uppercase
$ Displays a dollar sign in place of a leading space in a number
* Displays an asterisk in place of a leading space in a number
. Specifies a decimal point position
, Specifies a comma position

Examples :

This example uses an @…SAY with a PICTURE clause to display formatted output:

nNetIncome = 7125.50
nNetLoss = -125.50
cPhone = "2134567890"
cName = "Kate Mystic"
@ 1, 1 SAY nNetIncome PICTURE "@E 9,999.99" // Result: 7.125,50
@ 2, 1 SAY nNetLoss PICTURE "@)" // Result: (125.50)
@ 3, 1 SAY cPhone PICTURE "@R (999)999-9999" // Result: (213)456-7890
@ 4, 1 SAY cName PICTURE "@!" // Result: KATE MYSTIC

This example is a small label printing program that uses SET DEVICE to direct output to the printer and SETPRC() to suppress automatic EJECTs:

USE Salesman INDEX Salesman NEW
DO WHILE !EOF() // Print all records
   @ 2, 5 SAY RTRIM(FirstName) + ", " + LastName
   @ 3, 5 SAY Street
   @ 4, 5 SAY RTRIM(City) + ", " + State + " " + PostalCode
   @ 6, 0 SAY SPACE(1) // Move to label bottom
   SETPRC(0, 0) // Suppress page eject
   SKIP // Next record
CLOSE Salesman