Harbour All Functions – S






















C5 UI Global Settings

C5 User Interface Global Settings :


Modify the date format to include or omit century digits

SET CENTURY on | OFF | <xlToggle>


Define screen colors

SET COLOR | COLOUR TO [[<standard>]
    [,<enhanced>] [,<border>] [,<background>]
    [,<unselected>]] | (<cColorString>)


Toggle required exit key to terminate GETs

SET CONFIRM on | OFF | <xlToggle>


Toggle console display to the screen

SET CONSOLE ON | off | <xlToggle>


Toggle the screen cursor on or off

SET CURSOR ON | off | <xlToggle>


Set the date format for input and display

SET DATE FORMAT [TO] <cDateFormat>
SET DATE [TO] AMERICAN | ansi | british | french
    | german | italian | japan | usa


Set the number of decimal places displayed

SET DECIMALS TO [<nDecimals>]


Toggle or define GET delimiters

SET DELIMITERS on | OFF | <xlToggle>


Direct @…SAYs to the screen or printer



Control the interpretation of dates with no century digits



Toggle fixing of the number of decimal digits displayed

SET FIXED on | OFF | <xlToggle>


Toggle asterisk (*) interpretation in SET COLOR

SETBLINK([<lToggle>]) --> lCurrentSetting


Return the current colors and optionally set new colors

SETCOLOR([<cColorString>]) --> cColorString


Set the cursor shape

SETCURSOR([<nCursorShape>]) --> nCurrentSetting


Change display mode to specified number of rows and columns

SETMODE(<nRows>, <nCols>) --> lSuccess


Move the cursor to a new position

SETPOS(<nRow>, <nCol>) --> NIL


 Change display mode to a specified number of rows and columns

     SETMODE(<nRows>, <nCols>) --> lSuccess


     <nRows> is the number of rows in the desired display mode.

     <nCols> is the number of columns in the desired display mode.


     SETMODE() returns true (.T.) if the mode change was successful;
     otherwise, it returns false (.F.).


     SETMODE() is an environment function that attempts to change the mode of
     the display hardware to match the number of rows and columns specified.
     The change in screen size is reflected in the values returned by
     MAXROW() and MAXCOL().

     Note:  In LLG_VIDEO_TXT mode, and when a VESA driver is present, it
     is possible to use the following values :
     25,80 | 43,80 | 50,80 | 60,80 | 25,132 | 43,132 | 50,132 | 60,132


     .  This example switches to a 43-line display mode:

        IF SETMODE(43, 80)
           ? "43-line mode successfully set"
           ? "43-line mode not available"

     .  This example switches the video mode to regular text mode with
        60 rows and 132 columns:

        // Switch to text mode
        // Set the video mode to the largest number of characters
        SETMODE( 60,132 )

 Files   Library is CLIPPER.LIB.



Quick Start to Migration

Chapter I – Text to text conversion

In Clipper world, “migration” means “convert a DOS based Clipper program to Windows”. This is a dream of every Clipper – DOS programmer.

 Before all, we need clarify some terms:

May be found multiple ways for convert a DOS based Clipper program to Windows. In general, DOS programs are runs in “text” mode and Windows program runs in “Graphic” mode; and this is what meant by term “migration”.

Converting a text mode program to directly GUI (Graphical User Interface) is a painful job. First, we need to find a Compiler with GUI support, or a GUI library usable with a specific compiler. If we have more than one opportunity ( yes, it is so ) we need make a choice between them.

For make a right selection we need learn, understand specialties of each option and differences between them.

Believe me, this is an endless way 😦

Instead, let’s begin with simpler thing: convert a DOS text mode program to Windows text mode program.

Question: Without GUI, what meaning will be to migrate from DOS to Windows?

Answer: Good question and like all good question, answer isn’t easy.

First, modern OSs moves away day to day from DOS conditions; memory problems, screen problems, codepage problems, etc… By the time, building / running 16 bit executable becomes more difficult day to day.

Whereas Harbour already is a 32 / 64 bit compiler.

Second, all DOS Compilers for Clipper are commercial and registration required products; furthermore they are almost out of sold for this days; what compiler you could use?

And third, Harbour is best free compiler and the best way to use a free GUI tool for xBase language.

So, beginning with using Harbour in text mode is the best start point, I think.

First step is downloading and install HMG or Harbour. If you didn’t past this step yet please refer previous articles in this section or “Links” page of this blog.

The easiest way for using Harbour compiler is calling hbmk2, the wonderful project maker for Harbour compiler.

Depending your installation, hbmk2 may be in different locations; such as C:\Harbour\bin or c:\hmg\harbour\bin or anything else.

Hereafter I will assume that your hbmk2 is in C:\hmg\Harbour\bin. If your installation is different, please modify above examples.

Second step is assign an empty folder (directory) for work / test affairs; say C:\test.

And the third step is copying your Clipper program(s) to this folder.

But don’t rush; we have some precautions:

– Better way is starting with a single-program project; if you haven’t written a new one. Don’t uses for now projects have multiple program file.

 – Your program may have some “national” characters and these characters may be differently shown between DOS and Windows. If so, you may want fix manually these differences via a Windows based text editor. Or use a program if you have one. Harbour has a clever tool (HB_OEMTOANSI() function) is usable for this purpose.

 – In Clipper it’s possible a program file without module (procedure / function) definition. If you have such file(s), enclose your code with PROCEDURE — RETURN statement pair.

– Every Harbour project must have one and only one MAIN module (procedure / function). The first procedure / function in your single program file will be considered as MAIN module of your project. (In HMG, name of this module must be “main” also).

– Almost all Clipper commands, statement, functions, pseudo functions, manifest constants etc are usable almost in the same ways with Clipper. May be exist some very few and very rare differences, and of course solving methods for its.

For compile process we will use command box (DOS / console window) of Windows. You can open a console window, with the menu Start -> Run -> cmd or selecting it in the “Command Prompt” from the Start Menu \ All Programs.

 – “Command / console window” size may not appropriate for easy use. You may

      – use a MODE ( DOS ) command :

         MODE CON LINES=54 COLS=148


   – adding a SetMode() statement at the beginning of MAIN module of your project. For example:

       SetMode( 25,  80 )  // 25 line 80 column same as standard 
                           // DOS screen ( but not full screen ! )
       SetMode( 48, 128 )  // 48 line 128 column, may be more readable

Now, we are ready to begin: Enter this command in console window :

 C:\hmg\harbour\bin hbmk2 <mainPrgName>

You don’t need any SET command (such as PATH etc) before this command; hbmk2 will find all necessary paths / files.

For running executable after compile, add a -run switch to the command line :

 C:\hmg\harbour\bin hbmk2 <mainPrgName> -run

Of course, you need supply name of your main .prg file in place of <mainPrgName>.

Note that you don’t need a separate “linking” step; hbmk2 will do everything for you.

You may use this

 C:\hmg\harbour\bin hbmk2 <mainPrgName>

command via a batch ( .bat ) command file (such as “build.bat”) too. In this way you can apply compiling process without console window; run .bat file by double click in the Windows Explorer. In this case you may need add a PAUSE command at end of .bat file.

That’s all.

You know, a program file may contains more than one module (procedure / function). So you may develop your project by adding new modules to your single program file.

In this step you don’t need trying extra features, extensions of Harbour. Before that adventure your primary need is to convert existing project Clipper to Harbour.

When you reach a level of multiple-program file project:

– Basic rules are the same: the first module in the your program file is MAIN module of your project.

If your .prg files contains:

  SET PROCEDURE TO <procedure_File_Name>

 and / or

   #include <procedure_File_Name>

 you may or may not continue using these statement.

 – The shortest way for compiling a multiple-file project is use a .hbp ( Harbour Projet ) file. This is a text file and its simplest form is a file contains list of your .prg files. For example:


and the compile command is the same :

  C:\hmg\harbour\bin hbmk2 <mainProjectFileName>

In this case you don’t need to use SET PROC… and #include … statement and this is the better way.

Because hbmk2 applies “incremental” compiling, that is compiles only modified files.

Under normal circumstances, any module in any program file is callable in anywhere in the project. If you have some modules that exclusive to this program file, you may use STATIC keyword at the beginning of PROCEDURE / FUNCTION statement. For example:


With this syntax you will prevent calling this module outside of this .prg file and the possibility of using this module name into other .prg files.

Example :

Take “A typical Harbour Program” in the “Harbour Sample” page.

As seen at .pdf file by given link, this sample program borrowed from official reference guide of a Clipper compiler. That is, in fact this is a Clipper program and it will may compile with Harbour and run without any modification.

Let’s try.

– Copy and paste this sample and save in your PC with a name say “typical.prg”.

– Comment out the line for now.

 #include "Database.prg" // Contains generic database functions

– Call hbmk2:

 C:\hmg\harbour\bin hbmk2 typical -run

 Note: While working / playing on programs, you may encounter some error messages like:

  Error F0029  Can't open #include file xxx
  Error E0002  Redefinition of procedure or function xxx
  Error: Referenced, missing, but unknown function(s): xxx
  undefined reference to HB_FUN_xxx

 Please don’t panic !

    “Error” is salt and pepper of programming play ! 😉

 The worst situation isn’t getting error, but is unable to stay !

   The “HB_FUN_xxx” may be seen weird at first meet. The “HB_FUN_” is a prefix given by system ( compiler ) to your function; so you need search erroneous point into tour program files without this prefix.

Now, let’s continue to our “typical” program:

If you compile the program with commented out #include … line, possibly it will work, by opening main menu:


But what’s that?

When selected a menu item (except “Quit”) we can’t see other than an empty screen!

Again, don’t panic!

This situation too is not very rare !

If you use vertical scroll bar of command / console window, you will notice that your screen is considerably much longer than seen !

To avoid this conflict, ( as stated above ) we need use a SetMode() function call at top of our Main() procedure ( but AFTER LOCAL statement ! ) :

  SetMode( 24, 79 )

 And now everything is OK.


In fact, not really everything, we have a few “fine adjustment”.

Cut and paste the section after “// Database.prg” to a separate “Database.prg” file, un-comment the “#include …” line and then re-compile.

In this case we have a “multiple prg” project. As stated earlier, better way is using a .hbp file instead of “#include …” statements.

Now comment out ( or delete now ) the #include line.

Build a new text file with name “typical.hbp” and with this content :


And recall hbmk2 without any modification :

C:\hmg\harbour\bin hbmk2 typical -run

That’s all !

Congratulations !

Now you have a multiple-prg project  !

Parsing Text – Tokens

From Harbour changelog (at 2007-04-04 10:35 UTC+0200 By Przemyslaw Czerpak )
Added set of functions to manipulate string tokens:
HB_TOKENCOUNT( <cString>, [ <cDelim> ], [ <lSkipStrings> ],
 [ <lDoubleQuoteOnly> ] ) -> <nTokens>

 HB_TOKENGET( <cString>, <nToken>, [ <cDelim> ], [ <lSkipStrings> ],
 [ <lDoubleQuoteOnly> ] ) -> <cToken>

 HB_TOKENPTR( <cString>, @<nSkip>, [ <cDelim> ], [ <lSkipStrings> ],
 [ <lDoubleQuoteOnly> ] ) -> <cToken>

 HB_ATOKENS( <cString>, [ <cDelim> ], [ <lSkipStrings> ],
 [ <lDoubleQuoteOnly> ] ) -> <aTokens>

 All these functions use the same method of tokenization. They can
 accept as delimiters string longer then one character. By default
 they are using " " as delimiter. " " delimiter has special mening

 Unlike other delimiters repeted ' ' characters does not create empty
 tokens, f.e.: 

 HB_ATOKENS( " 1 2 3 " ) returns array:
 { "1", "2", "3" }

 Any other delimiters are restrictly counted, f.e.:

 HB_ATOKENS( ",,1,,2,") returns array:
 { "", "", "1", "", "2", "" }
And a strong suggession made at 2009-12-09 21:25 UTC+0100 ( By Przemyslaw Czerpak )
I strongly suggest to use hb_aTokens() and hb_token*() functions.
 They have more options and for really large data many times
 (even hundreds times) faster.

#define CRLF HB_OsNewLine()
LOCAL cTextFName := "Shakespeare.txt",;

 SetMode( 40, 120 )


 HB_MEMOWRIT( cTextFName,;
 "When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st," + CRLF + ;
 "So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see," + CRLF + ;
 "So long lives this, and this gives life to thee." )

 aLines := HB_ATOKENS( MEMOREAD( cTextFName ), CRLF )

 ? "Text file line by line :"
 AEVAL( aLines, { | c1Line | QOUT( c1Line ) } )
 WAIT "Press a key for parsing as words"
 ? "Text file word by word :"
 FOR EACH c1Line IN aLines
 a1Line := HB_ATOKENS( c1Line ) 
 AEVAL( a1Line, { | c1Word | QOUT( c1Word ) } )
 WAIT "Press a key for parsing directly as words"
 ? "Text file directly word by word :"
 aWords := HB_ATOKENS( MEMOREAD( cTextFName ) )
 AEVAL( aWords, { | c1Word | QOUT( c1Word ) } ) 

 @ MAXROW(), 0
 WAIT "EOF TP_Token.prg" 

RETURN // TP_Token.Main()

Parsing Text – FParse()

Parses a delimited text file and loads it into an array.
Syntax :
FParse( <cFileName>, <cDelimiter> ) --> aTextArray
Arguments :
<cFileName> : This is a character string holding the name of the text file to load 
 into an array. It must include path and file extension. 
 If the path is omitted from <cFileName>, 
 the file is searched in the current directory. 

 <cDelimiter> : This is a single character used to parse a single line of text. 
 It defaults to the comma.
Return :
The function returns a two dimensional array, or an empty array when the file 
cannot be opened. 

Description :

 Function FParse() reads a delimited text file and parses each line 
 of the file at <cDelimiter>. The result of line parsing is stored in an array.
This array, again, is collected in the returned array, 
 making it a two dimensional array
FParse() is mainly designed to read the comma-separated values (or CSV) file format, 
 were fields are separated with commas and records with new-line character(s). 

Library is : xHb 

#define CRLF HB_OsNewLine()
LOCAL cTextFName := "Shakespeare.txt",;

 SetMode( 40, 120 )


 HB_MEMOWRIT( cTextFName,;
              "When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st," + CRLF + ;
              "So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see," + CRLF + ;
              "So long lives this, and this gives life to thee." )

 aLines := FParse( cTextFName, " " )

 ? "Text file word by word :"
 FOR EACH a1Line IN aLines
    AEVAL( a1Line, { | c1Word | QOUT( c1Word ) } )
 @ MAXROW(), 0
 WAIT "EOF TP_FParse.prg" 

RETURN // TP_FParse.Main()