Harbour All Functions – S

SaveToken

SayScreen

Seconds
Secs

Select

Set

SetAtLike

SetDate

SetKey

SetMode

SetPrec

SetTime

SetTypeahead

Sign

Sin

SinH

Space

Sqrt

Str

StrDiff

StrFormat

StrSwap
StrTran
StrZero
SubStr

String Functions

AddASCII

AfterAtNum

AllTrim
Asc

ASCIISum

ASCPos
At

AtAdjust

AtNum
AtRepl
AtToken

BeforAtNum

Chr

CharAdd
CharAnd
CharEven
CharHist
CharList
CharMirr
CharMix
CharNoList
CharNot
CharOdd
CharOne
CharOnly
CharOr
CharPix
CharRela
CharRelRep
CharRem
CharRepl
CharRLL
CharRLR
CharSHL
CharSHR
CharSList
CharSort
CharSub
CharSwap
CharWin
CharXOR

CountLeft
CountRight
Descend
Empty
hb_At
hb_RAt
hb_ValToStr
IsAlpha
IsDigit
IsLower
IsUpper

JustLeft
JustRight

Left
Len
Lower
LTrim

NumAt
NumToken
PadLeft
PadRight

PadC
PadL
PadR

POSALPHA
POSCHAR
POSDEL
POSDIFF
POSEQUAL
POSINS
POSLOWER
POSRANGE
POSREPL
POSUPPER

RangeRem
RangeRepl

RAt

RemAll

RemLeft
RemRight
ReplAll

Replicate

ReplLeft

ReplRight

RestToken

Right
RTrim

SaveToken

SetAtLike
Space
Str

StrDiff

StrFormat

StrSwap

StrTran
StrZero
SubStr

TabExpand
TabPack

Token

TokenAt
TokenEnd
TokenExit
TokenInit
TokenLower
TokenNext
TokenNum
TokenSep
TokenUpper

Transform
Trim
Upper
Val

ValPos
WordOne
WordOnly
WordRem
WordRepl
WordSwap

WordToChar


Replicate()

REPLICATE()

Repeats a single character expression

Syntax

      REPLICATE( <cString>, <nSize> )  --> cReplicateString

Arguments

<cString> Character string to be replicated

<nSize> Number of times to replicate <cString>

Returns

<cReplicateString> A character expression contain the <cString> fill character.

Description

This function returns a string composed of <nSize> repetitions of <cString>. The length of the character string returned by this function is limited to the memory available.

A value of 0 for <nSize> will return a NULL string.

Examples

      ? REPLICATE( "a", 10 )      // aaaaaaaaaa
      ? REPLICATE( "b", 100000 )

Tests

      See Examples

Compliance

Clipper

Platforms

All (64K)

Files

Library is rtl

Seealso

SPACE(), PADC(), PADL(), PADR()

SP_ADDSPACE

ADDSPACE()

  Short:
  ------
  ADDSPACE() Pads right of string with spaces

  Returns:
  --------
  <cPaddedString> => String padded with spaces.

  Syntax:
  -------
  ADDSPACE(cInString,nPadSpaces)

  Description:
  ------------
  Pads right side of <cInString> with <nPadSpaces> spaces.

  Truncates string if <nPadSpaces> is shorter than
  original string length.

  Examples:
  ---------
   ADDSPACE("GARRY",10)     // => "GARRY           "

  Notes:
  -------
  For compatibility. In Clipper 5.x , the function
  PADR() does the same thing.

  Source:
  -------
  S_ADDSP.PRG

 

C5_SPACE

 SPACE()
 Return a string of spaces
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Syntax

     SPACE(<nCount>) --> cSpaces

 Arguments

     <nCount> is the number of spaces to be returned, up to a maximum of
     65,535 (64 K).

 Returns

     SPACE() returns a character string.  If <nCount> is zero, SPACE()
     returns a null string ("").

 Description

     SPACE() is a character function that returns a specified number of
     spaces.  It is the same as REPLICATE("", <nCount>).  SPACE() can
     initialize a character variable before associating it with a GET.
     SPACE() can also pad strings with leading or trailing spaces.  Note,
     however, that the PADC(), PADL(), and PADR() functions are more
     effective for this purpose.

 Examples

     .  This example uses SPACE() to initialize a variable for data
        input:

        USE Customer NEW
        MEMVAR->Name = SPACE(LEN(Customer->Name))
        @ 10,10 SAY "Customer Name" GET MEMVAR->Name
        READ

 Files   Library is CLIPPER.LIB.

See Also: PAD() REPLICATE()



Faster Migration

Quick Start to Migration

Chapter I – Text to text conversion

Section 2 – Faster Migration

Well …

Forget about all those mysterious DOS / console / command modes, batch processing, etc.

If you have tongs, don’t burn your hand!

Yes we have; so let’s use it:

Step : 1

Begin with making / assigning  a folder for your works; FE : C:\MyWorks

Note : Working in a separate and clean folder is important.

Step : 2

Build a “Harbour Project”  file : say MyTest01.hbp; and put a line into it :

My1stProg.prg

Step : 3

Build a a program  file : say My1stProg.prg ; and write your very first program:

REQUEST HB_GT_WIN_DEFAULT
PROCEDURE Main
   SETMODE( 25, 80 )
   CLIENTE = SPACE( 15 )
   @ 10, 15 SAY "Customer : " GET CLIENTE
   READ
   @ 12, 0
   ? CLIENTE
   WAIT
RETURN

Step : 4

Open your .hbp file with HMG-IDE and press “Run” button.

VeryFirstHarbourProject

That’s all !

Any other problem / question ?

Happy HMG’ing 😀

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hash Basics

Definition:

In general, a Hash Table, or Hash Array, or Associative array, or shortly Hash is an array- like data structure, to store some data with an associated key for each; so, ‘atom’ of a hash is a pair of a ‘key’ with a ‘value’. A hash system needs to perform at least three operations:

–      add a new pair,

–      access to value via key

–      the search and delete operations on a key pair

In Harbour, a hash is simply a special array, or more precisely a “keyed” array with special syntax with a set of functions.

Building:

The “=>” operator can be used to indicate literally the relation between <key> <value> pair: <key> => <value>

 We can define and initialize a hash by this “literal” way :

 hDigits_1 := { 1 => 1, 2  => 2, 3  => 3, 4  => 4 }

 or by a special function call:

 hDigits_1 := HB_HASH( 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4 )

 Using “add” method may be another way :

hDigits_1 := { => } // Build an empty hash
hDigits_1[ 1] := 1

hDigits_1[ 2] := 2

hDigits_1[ 3] := 3

hDigits_1[ 4] := 4

In this method while evaluating each of above assignments, if given key exits in hash, will be replaced its value; else add a new pair to the hash.

In addition, data can be added to a hash by extended “+=” operator:

   hCountries := { 'Argentina' => "Buenos Aires" }
   hCountries += { 'Brasil'    => "Brasilia" }
   hCountries += { 'Chile'     => "Santiago" }
   hCountries += { 'Mexico'    => "Mexico City" }

Hashs may add ( concatenate ) each other by extended “+” sign :

   hFruits := { "fruits" => { "apple", "chery", "apricot" } }
   hDays   := { "days"   => { "sunday", "monday" } } 
   hDoris := hFruits + hDays

Note:  This “+” and “+=” operators depends xHB lib and needs to xHB lib and xHB.ch.

Typing :

<key> part of a hash may be any legal scalar type : C, D, L, N; and <value> part may be in addition scalar types, any complex type ( array or hash ).

Correction : This definition is wrong ! The correct is :

<key> entry key; can be of type: number, date, datetime, string, pointer.

Corrected at : 2015.12.08; thanks to Marek.

hDigits_2 := {  1  => “One”,  2  => “Two”,  3  => “Three”,  4  => “Four” }

hDigits_3 := { "1" => "One", "2" => "Two", "3" => "Three", "4" => "Four" }
hDigits_4 := { "1" => "One",  2  => "Two",  3  => "Three", "4" => "Four" }
hDigits_5 := {  1  => "One",  1  => "Two",  3  => "Three",  4  => "Four"

All of these examples are legal. As a result, a pair record of a hash may be:

–      Numeric key, numeric value ( hDigits_1 )

–      Numeric key, character value ( hDigits_2 )

–      Character key, character value ( hDigits_3 )

–      Mixed type key ( hDigits_4 )

Duplicate keys (as seen in hDigits_5) is permitted to assign, but not give a result such as double keyed values: LEN( hDigits_5 ) is 3, not 4; because first pair replaced by second due to has same key.

Consider a table-like data for customers records with two character fields: Customer ID and customer name:

Cust_ID Cust_Name
CC001 Pierce Firth
CC002 Stellan Taylor
CC003 Chris Cherry
CC004 Amanda Baranski

We can build a hash with this data :

  hCustomers := { "CC001" => "Pierce Firth",;
 "CC002" => "Stellan Taylor",;
 "CC003" => "Chris Cherry",;
 "CC004" => "Amanda Baranski" }

and list it:

   ?
   ? "Listing a hash :"
   ?
   h1Record := NIL
   FOR EACH h1Record IN hCustomers
      ? cLMarj, h1Record:__ENUMKEY(), h1Record:__ENUMVALUE()
   NEXT

 Accessing a specific record is easy :

 hCustomers[ "CC003" ] // Chris Cherry
*-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.
/*
Hash Basics

*/
#include "xhb.ch"
#define NTrim( n ) LTRIM( STR( n ) )
PROCEDURE Main()
 SET DATE GERM
 SET CENT ON
 SET COLO TO "W/B"

 cLMarj := SPACE( 3 )

 CLS

 hDigits_1 := { => } // Build an empty hash

 hDigits_1[ 1 ] := 1
 hDigits_1[ 2 ] := 2
 hDigits_1[ 3 ] := 3
 hDigits_1[ 4 ] := 4

 ListHash( hDigits_1, "Digits_1" )

 hDigits_2 := HB_HASH( 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4 )

 ListHash( hDigits_2, "Digits_2" )

 hDigits_3 := { 1 => 1,;
 2 => 2,;
 3 => 3,;
 4 => 4 }
 ListHash( hDigits_3, "Digits_3" )

 hDigits_4 := { 1 => "One",;
 2 => "Two",;
 3 => "Three",;
 4 => "Four" }
ListHash( hDigits_4, "Digits_4" )

 hDigits_5 := { "1" => "One",;
 "2" => "Two",;
 "3" => "Three",;
 "4" => "Four" }
 ListHash( hDigits_5, "Digits_5" )

 hDigits_6 := { "1" => "One",;
 2 => "Two",;
 3 => "Three",;
 "4" => "Four" }
 ListHash( hDigits_6, "Digits_6" )

 hDigits_7 := { 1 => "One",;
 1 => "Two",; // This line replace to previous due to same key 
 3 => "Three",;
 4 => "Four" }
 ListHash( hDigits_7, "Digits_7" )

 * WAIT "EOF digits"

 hCustomers := { "CC001" => "Pierce Firth",;
 "CC002" => "Stellan Taylor",;
 "CC003" => "Chris Cherry",;
 "CC004" => "Amanda Baranski" }
 ListHash( hCustomers, "A hash defined and initialized literally" )
 ?
 ? "Hash value with a specific key (CC003) :", hCustomers[ "CC003" ] // Chris Cherry
 ?
 cKey := "CC003" 
 ?
 ? "Locating a specific record in an hash by key (", cKey, ":"
 ?
 c1Data := hCustomers[ cKey ]
 ? cLMarj, c1Data

 hCountries := { 'Argentina' => "Buenos Aires" }
 hCountries += { 'Brasil' => "Brasilia" }
 hCountries += { 'Chile' => "Santiago" }
 hCountries += { 'Mexico' => "Mexico City" }

 ListHash( hCountries, "A hash defined and initialized by adding with '+=' operator:" )

 hFruits := { "fruits" => { "apple", "chery", "apricot" } }
 hDays := { "days" => { "sunday", "monday" } } 

 hDoris := hFruits + hDays

 ListHash( hDoris, "A hash defined and initialized by concataned two hash with '+' operator:" )

 ?
 @ MAXROW(), 0
 WAIT "EOF HashBasics.prg"

RETURN // HashBasics.Main()
*-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.
PROCEDURE ListHash( hHash, cComment )

 LOCAL x1Pair := NIL

 cComment := IF( HB_ISNIL( cComment ), '', cComment )

 ? 
 ? cComment, "-- Type :", VALTYPE( hHash ), "size:", NTrim ( LEN( hHash ) ) 
 ?
 FOR EACH x1Pair IN hHash
    nIndex := x1Pair:__ENUMINDEX()
    x1Key := x1Pair:__ENUMKEY()
    x1Value := x1Pair:__ENUMVALUE()
    ? cLMarj, NTrim( nIndex ) 
*   ?? '', VALTYPE( x1Pair )
    ?? '', x1Key, "=>"
*   ?? '', VALTYPE( x1Key ) 
*   ?? VALTYPE( x1Value ) 
    IF HB_ISARRAY( x1Value ) 
       AEVAL( x1Value, { | x1 | QQOUT( '', x1 ) } )
    ELSE 
       ?? '', x1Value
    ENDIF 
 NEXT

RETURN // ListHash()
*-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.-._.

HashBass