Abs

ACos

ASin

ATan

CosH

DToR

Exp

Exponent

Fact

Floor

GetPrec

RToD

SetPrec

Tan

TanH

# SET FIXED

### SET FIXED

Category

Set the number of decimal position to be displayed

Syntax

`      SET FIXED on | OFF | (<lFixed>)`

Arguments

<lFixed> Logical expression for toggle

Description

This command activates a system wide fixed placement of decimals places shown for all numeric outputs. If the value of <lFixed> is a logical true (.T.), FIXED will be turned ON; otherwise it will be turned OFF.

When SET DECIMALS OFF is used, the following rules apply to the number of decimal placed displayed.

```       Addition         Same as operand with the greatest
number of decimal digits
Subtraction      Same as operand with the greatest
number of decimal digits
Multiplication   Sum of operand decimal digits
Division         Determined by SET DECIMAL TO
Exponential      Determined by SET DECIMAL TO
Log()            Determined by SET DECIMAL TO
Exp()            Determined by SET DECIMAL TO
Sqrt()           Determined by SET DECIMAL TO
Val()            Determined by SET DECIMAL TO```

Examples

```      SET FIXED ON
? 25141251 / 362
SET FIXED OFF```

Compliance

Clipper

Seealso

SET DECIMALS, Exp(), Log(), Sqrt(), Val(), Set()

# Sqrt()

### Sqrt()

Calculates the square root of a number.

Syntax

`      Sqrt( <nNumber> ) --> <nSqrt>`

Arguments

<nNumber> Any numeric value.

Returns

<nSqrt> The square root of <number>.

Description

This function returns the square root of <nNumber>. The precision of this evaluation is based solely on the settings of the SET DECIMAL TO command. Any negative number passed as <nNumber> will always return a 0.

Examples

```      SET DECIMAL TO 5
? Sqrt( 632512.62541 )
? Sqrt( 845414111.91440 )```

Compliance

Clipper

Platforms

All

Files

Library is core

Seealso

Round()

# C5_SQRT

``` SQRT()
Return the square root of a positive number
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Syntax

SQRT(<nNumber>) --> nRoot

Arguments

<nNumber> is a positive number for which the square root is to be
computed.

Returns

SQRT() returns a numeric value calculated to double precision.  The
number of decimal places displayed is determined solely by SET DECIMALS
regardless of SET FIXED.  A negative <nNumber> returns zero.

Description

SQRT() is a numeric function used anywhere in a numeric calculation to
compute a square root (e.g., in an expression that calculates standard
deviation).

Examples

.  These examples show various results of SQRT():

SET DECIMALS TO 5
//
? SQRT(2)                 // Result: 1.41421
? SQRT(4)                 // Result: 2.00000
? SQRT(4) ** 2            // Result: 4.00000
? SQRT(2) ** 2            // Result: 2.00000

Files   Library is CLIPPER.LIB.```

# C5 Data Manipulation Functions

### Array :

Add a new element to the end of an array

`AADD( <aTarget>, <expValue> ) --> Value`

#### ACLONE() :

Duplicate a nested or multidimensional array

`ACLONE( <aSource> ) --> aDuplicate`

#### ACOPY() :

Copy elements from one array to another

```ACOPY( <aSource>, <aTarget>, [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ],
[ <nTargetPos> ] ) --> aTarget```

Delete an array element

`ADEL( <aTarget>, <nPosition> ) --> aTarget`

Fill a series of arrays with directory information

```ADIR([ <cFilespec> ],
[ <aFilenames> ],
[ <aSizes> ],
[ <aTimes> ],
[ <aAttributes> ] ) --> nFiles```

#### AEVAL() :

Execute a code block for each element in an array

`AEVAL( <aArray>, <bBlock>, [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ] ) --> aArray`

#### AFILL() :

Fill an array with a specified value

`AFILL( <aTarget>, <expValue>, [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ] )`
`       --> aTarget`

#### AINS() :

Insert a NIL element into an array

`AINS( <aTarget>, <nPosition> ) --> aTarget`

#### ARRAY() :

Create an uninitialized array of specified length

`ARRAY( <nElements> [, <nElements>...] ) --> aArray`

#### ASCAN() :

Scan an array for a value or until a block returns (.T.)

`ASCAN( <aTarget>, <expSearch>, [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ] )`
`      --> nStoppedAt`

#### ASIZE() :

Grow or shrink an array

`ASIZE( <aTarget>, <nLength> ) --> aTarget`

#### ASORT() :

Sort an array

`ASORT( <aTarget>, [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ], [ <bOrder> ] )`
`       --> aTarget`

#### ATAIL() :

Return value of the highest numbered (last) element of an array

`ATAIL( <aArray> ) --> Element`

### Common :

#### EMPTY() :

Determine if the result of an expression is empty

`EMPTY( <exp> ) --> lEmpty`

#### LEN() :

Return the length of a character string or array size

`LEN( <cString> | <aArray> ) --> nCount`

#### MAX() :

Return the larger of two numeric or date values

```MAX( <nExp1>, <nExp2> ) --> nLarger
MAX( <dExp1>, <dExp2> ) --> dLarger```

#### MIN() :

Return the smaller of two numeric or date values

```MIN( <nExp1>, <nExp2> ) --> nSmaller
MIN( <dExp1>, <dExp2> ) --> dSmaller```

Pad character, date or numeric values with a fill character

```PADL( <exp>, <nLength>, [ <cFillChar> ] ) --> cPaddedString

#### TRANSFORM() :

Convert any value into a formatted character string

`TRANSFORM( <exp>, <cSayPicture> ) --> cFormatString`

#### TYPE() :

Determine the type of an expression

`TYPE( <cExp> ) --> cType`

#### VALTYPE() :

Determine the data type returned by an expression

`VALTYPE( <exp> ) --> cType`

### Date & Time :

#### CDOW() :

Convert a date value to a character day of the week

`CDOW( <dExp> ) --> cDayName`

#### CMONTH() :

Convert a date to a character month name

`CMONTH( <dDate> ) --> cMonth`

#### CTOD() :

Convert a date string to a date value

`CTOD( <cDate> ) --> dDate`

#### DATE() :

Return the system date as a date value

`DATE() --> dSystem`

#### DAY() :

Return the day of the month as a numeric value

`DAY( <dDate> ) --> nDay`

#### DOW() :

Convert a date value to a numeric day of the week

`DOW( <dDate> ) --> nDay`

#### DTOC() :

Convert a date value to a character string

`DTOC( <dDate> ) --> cDate`

#### DTOS() :

Convert a date value to a string formatted as yyyymmdd

`DTOS( <dDate> ) --> cDate`

#### MONTH() :

Convert a date value to the number of the month

`MONTH( <dDate> ) --> nMonth`

#### SECONDS() :

Return the number of seconds elapsed since midnight

`SECONDS() --> nSeconds`

#### TIME() :

Return the system time

`TIME() --> cTimeString`

#### YEAR() :

Convert a date value to the year as a numeric value

`YEAR( <dDate> ) --> nYear`

#### ABS() :

Return the absolute value of a numeric expression

`ABS( <nExp> ) --> nPositive`

#### BIN2I() :

Convert a 16-bit signed integer to a numeric value

`BIN2I( <cSignedInt> ) --> nNumber`

#### BIN2L() :

Convert a 32-bit signed integer to a numeric value

`BIN2L( <cSignedInt> ) --> nNumber`

#### BIN2W() :

Convert a 16-bit unsigned integer to a numeric value

`BIN2W( <cUnsignedInt> ) --> nNumber`

#### EXP() :

Calculate e**x

`EXP( <nExponent> ) --> nAntilogarithm`

#### INT() :

Convert a numeric value to an integer

`INT( <nExp> ) --> nInteger`

#### I2BIN() :

Convert a numeric to a 16-bit binary integer

`I2BIN( <nInteger> ) --> cBinaryInteger`

#### LOG() :

Calculate the natural logarithm of a numeric value

`LOG( <nExp> ) --> nNaturalLog`

#### L2BIN() :

Convert a numeric value to a 32-bit binary integer

`L2BIN( <nExp> ) --> cBinaryInteger`

#### MOD()* :

Return dBASE III PLUS modulus of two numbers

`MOD( <nDividend>, <nDivisor> ) --> nRemainder`

#### ROUND() :

Return a value rounded to a specified number of digits

`ROUND( <nNumber>, <nDecimals> ) --> nRounded`

#### SQRT() :

Return the square root of a positive number

`SQRT( <nNumber> ) --> nRoot`

#### VAL() :

Convert a character number to numeric type

`VAL( <cNumber> ) --> nNumber`

### String & Memo :

#### ALLTRIM() :

Remove leading and trailing spaces from character string

`ALLTRIM( <cString> ) --> cTrimString`

#### ASC() :

Convert a character to its ASCII value

`ASC( <cExp> ) --> nCode`

#### AT() :

Return the position of a substring within a string

`AT( <cSearch>, <cTarget> ) --> nPosition`

#### CHR() :

Convert an ASCII code to a character value

`CHR( <nCode> ) --> cChar`

#### HARDCR() :

Replace all soft CRs with hard CRs

`HARDCR( <cString> ) --> cConvertedString`

#### ISALPHA() :

Determine if the leftmost character is alphabetic

`ISALPHA( <cString> ) --> lBoolean`

#### ISDIGIT() :

Determine if the leftmost character is a digit

`ISDIGIT( <cString> ) --> lBoolean`

#### ISLOWER() :

Determine if the leftmost character is a lower case letter

`ISLOWER( <cString> ) --> lBoolean`

#### ISUPPER() :

Determine if the leftmost character is upper case

`ISUPPER( <cString> ) --> lBoolean`

#### LEFT() :

Extract a substring beginning with the first character

`LEFT( <cString>, <nCount> ) --> cSubString`

#### LOWER() :

Convert uppercase characters to lowercase

`LOWER( <cString> ) --> cLowerString`

#### LTRIM() :

Remove leading spaces from a character string

`LTRIM( <cString> ) --> cTrimString`

#### MEMOEDIT() :

Display or edit character strings and memo fields

```MEMOEDIT( [ <cString> ],
[ <nTop> ], [ <nLeft> ],
[ <nBottom> ], [ <nRight> ],
[ <lEditMode> ],
[ <cUserFunction> ],
[ <nLineLength> ],
[ <nTabSize> ],
[ <nTextBufferRow> ],
[ <nTextBufferColumn> ],
[ <nWindowRow> ],
[ <nWindowColumn> ] ) --> cTextBuffer```

#### MEMOLINE() :

Extract a line of text from character string or memo field

```MEMOLINE( <cString>,
[ <nLineLength> ],
[ <nLineNumber> ],
[ <nTabSize> ],
[ <lWrap> ] ) --> cLine```

Return the contents of a disk file as a character string

`MEMOREAD( <cFile> ) --> cString`

#### MEMOTRAN() :

Replace carriage return/line feeds in character strings

```MEMOTRAN( <cString>,
[ <cReplaceHardCR> ],
[ <cReplaceSoftCR> ] ) --> cNewString```

#### MEMOWRIT() :

Write a character string or memo field to a disk file

`MEMOWRIT( <cFile>, <cString> ) --> lSuccess`

#### MLCOUNT() :

Count the lines in a character string or memo field

`MLCOUNT( <cString>, [ <nLineLength> ],  [ <nTabSize> ],`
`         [ <lWrap> ] ) --> nLines`

#### MLCTOPOS() :

Return byte position based on line and column position

```MLCTOPOS( <cText>, <nWidth>, <nLine>,
<nCol>, [ <nTabSize> ], [ <lWrap> ] ) --> nPosition```

#### MLPOS() :

Determine the position of a line in a memo field

```MLPOS( <cString>, <nLineLength>,
<nLine>, [ <nTabSize> ], [ <lWrap> ] ) --> nPosition```

#### MPOSTOLC() :

Return line and column position based on byte position

```MPOSTOLC( <cText>, <nWidth>, <nPos>,
[ <nTabSize> ], [ <lWrap> ] ) --> aLineColumn```

#### RAT() :

Return the position of the last occurrence of a substring

`RAT( <cSearch>, <cTarget> ) --> nPosition`

#### REPLICATE() :

Return a string repeated a specified number of times

`REPLICATE( <cString>, <nCount> ) --> cRepeatedString`

#### RIGHT() :

Return a substring beginning with rightmost character

`RIGHT( <cString>, <nCount> ) --> cSubString`

#### RTRIM() :

Remove trailing spaces from a character string

`RTRIM( <cString> ) --> cTrimString`

#### SET EXACT* :

Toggle exact matches for character strings

`SET EXACT on | OFF | <xlToggle>`

#### SOUNDEX() :

Convert a character string to soundex form

`SOUNDEX( <cString> ) --> cSoundexString`

#### SPACE() :

Return a string of spaces

`SPACE( <nCount> ) --> cSpaces`

#### STR() :

Convert a numeric expression to a character string

`STR( <nNumber>, [ <nLength> ], [ <nDecimals> ] ) --> cNumber`

#### STRTRAN() :

Search and replace characters within a character string

`STRTRAN( <cString>, <cSearch>, [ <cReplace> ],`
`    [ <nStart> ], [ <nCount> ] ) --> cNewString`

#### STUFF() :

Delete and insert characters in a string

`STUFF( <cString>, <nStart>, <nDelete>, <cInsert> ) --> cNewString`

#### SUBSTR() :

Extract a substring from a character string

`SUBSTR( <cString>, <nStart>, [ <nCount> ] ) --> cSubstring`

#### TRIM() :

Remove trailing spaces from a character string

`TRIM( <cString> ) --> cTrimString`

#### UPPER() :

Convert lowercase characters to uppercase

`UPPER( <cString> ) --> cUpperString`