Establishes a volume label for a floppy or hard disk


     VOLUME(<cDiskName>) --> lEstablished


     <cDiskName>  Designates a name to use on a new volume label.  A
     drive designation is allowed; path designation and wildcards are not.


     VOLUME() returns .T. when the new volume entry is created.


     DOS provides a volume label as a disk identifier.  With the VOLUME()
     function you can establish this label.  There is never more than one
     label per floppy or hard disk.  A volume label can be up to 11
     characters long, but when you use a period (.) it must always follow the
     eighth character.

     You can query the volume label with FILESEEK(), since the value 8 is
     assigned as the volume attribute.


     .  A new volume label is always created in the root directory.

     .  The function acknowledges the CSETSAFETY() setting and, if
        necessary, does not overwrite an existing label.


     .  Establish a volume label for A: drive:

     .  Query the A: drive volume label:

        ? FILESEEK("A:\*.*", 8)      // Based on example 1 "VOLO815"

See Also: FILESEEK()


Tools — Disk Utilities

Introduction Disk Utilities
DELETEFILE() Deletes an error-tolerant file
DIRCHANGE()  Changes the current directory
DIRMAKE()    Creates a directory
DIRNAME()    Determines the name of the current directory
DIRREMOVE()  Removes a directory
DISKCHANGE() Changes the current disk drive
DISKCHECK()  Creates a checksum for a disk
DISKFORMAT() Formats disks, controlled through a UDF
DISKFREE()   Determines the space available on a floppy or hard disk
DISKNAME()   Determines the drive designator for the current drive
DISKREADY()  Tests to see if a disk drive is ready
DISKREADYW() Queries whether you can write to a drive
DISKSPEED()  Determines a comparison value for the drive speed
DISKSTAT()   Determines the status of a drive.
DISKTOTAL()  Determines the total capacity of a floppy or hard disk
DISKTYPE()   Determines the type of data carrier
DRIVETYPE()  Determines the drive type
FILEAPPEND() Appends data to a file
FILEATTR()   Determines a file's attributes
FILECCLOSE() Closes a file after backup mode
FILECCONT()  Copies sections of a file in backup mode
FILECDATI()  Determines which date the target file contains with FILECOPY()
FILECHECK()  Calculates/computes/determines a checksum for a file
FILECOPEN()  Tests to see if the file is still open in the backup mode
FILECOPY()   Copies files normally or in backup mode
FILEDATE()   Determines the file date
FILEDELETE() Deletes file(s) by name and attribute
FILEMOVE()   Moves files to another directory
FILESEEK()   Searches for files by name and attribute
FILESIZE()   Determines the size of a file
FILESTR()    Reads a portion of a file into a string
FILETIME()   Determines a file's time
FILEVALID()  Tests whether a string has a valid file name
FLOPPYTYPE() Determines the exact type of floppy drive
GETSHARE()   Determines the file open (share) mode
NUMDISKF()   Determines the number of installed disk drives
NUMDISKH()   Determines the number of hard disks
NUMDISKL()   Determines the number of available logical drives
RENAMEFILE() Fault tolerant renaming of a file.
RESTFSEEK()  Restores the FILESEEK environment
SAVEFSEEK()  Saves the current FILESEEK environment
SETFATTR()   Sets a file's attributes
SETFCREATE() Default attribute for creating with CA-Clipper Tools functions
SETFDATI()   Sets the date and time of a file
SETSHARE()   Sets default opening mode for CA-Clipper Tools file functions
STRFILE()    Writes a string to a file
TEMPFILE()   Creates a file for temporary use
TRUENAME()   Standardizes the path designation
VOLSERIAL()  Determines the DOS disk serial number
VOLUME()     Establishes a volume label for a floppy or hard disk

Copy Protection

How I can protect my application against copying?

May be exist many ways. One of theme is using HD serial number.

1. Read volume serial number of hard disk(s) of your customer. ( Apply this procedure while installation, once only one and preferably manually.  Of course you can obtain this info by online accessing to system of your customer. )

2. Record this info ( after crypt ) anywhere you like in the customer system: in a .MEM file, a .dbf / dbt, in registry, even directly into your application as a literal constant.

3. Your application will begin to run by reading this recorded data and compare it with actual HD serial number of customer; if match continue working, else …

Here an example to get  HD serial number.

File Terms

Binary File :

A file that contains an unformatted sequence of bytes. Carriage return, linefeed, or end of file characters have no special meaning in a binary file. Binary files include executable files, graphics files, or data files.

See Also: Text File

Delimited File :

A text file that contains variable-length database records with each record separated by a carriage return/linefeed pair ( CHR(13) + CHR(10) ) and terminated with an end of file mark ( CHR(26) ). Each field within a delimited file is variable length, not padded with either leading or trailing spaces, and separated by a comma. Character strings are optionally delimited to allow for embedded commas.

See Also: Database, SDF File, Text File

Directory :

The major operating system facility for cataloging files. A directory contains a list of files and references to child directories (subdirectories), and is identified by name. Directories can be nested forming a hierarchical tree structure. The operating system provides a number of facilities that allow users to create and delete directories.

See Also: Disk, File, Path, Volume

Drive :

A disk drive or a letter (normally followed by a colon) that designates a disk drive. On most computers, the letters A and B refer to floppy disk drives; other letters refer to fixed disk drives or logical drives (e.g., fixed disk partitions or network drives).

Extension :

A filename extension normally used for identifying the type or originating program of a file.

See Also: Drive, Filename, Path

File :

A file is an organized collection of bytes stored on disk, maintained by the operating system, and referenced by name. Its internal structure is solely determined by its creator.

See Also : Binary File, Database, Text File

File Handle :

An integer numeric value returned from FOPEN() or FCREATE() when a file is opened or created. This value is used to identify the file for other operations until it is closed.

Filename :

The name of a disk file that may optionally include a drive designator, path, and extension.

See Also: Drive, Extension, Path

Path :

A literal string that specifies the location of a disk directory in the tree structured directory system. A path specification consists of the following elements: an optional disk drive letter followed by a colon, an optional backslash indicating that the path starts at the root directory of the specified drive, the names of all the directories from the root directory to the target directory, separated by backslash () characters. Example: C:CLIPPERINCLUDE. A path list is a series of path specifications separated by semicolons.

SDF File :

A text file that contains fixed-length database records with each record separated by a carriage return/linefeed pair (CHR(13) + CHR(10)) and terminated with an end of file mark (CHR(26)). Each field within an SDF file is fixed-length with character strings padded with trailing spaces and numeric values padded with leading spaces. There are no field separators.

Separator :

The character or set of characters that differentiate fields or records from one another. In Clipper language, the DELIMITED and SDF file types have separators. The DELIMITED file uses a comma as the field separator and a carriage return/linefeed pair as the record separator. The SDF file type has no field separator, but also uses a carriage return/linefeed pair as the record separator.

See Also: Delimiter

Subdirectory :

See : Directory

Text File :

A file consisting entirely of ASCII characters. Each line is separated by a carriage return/linefeed pair (CHR(13) + CHR(10)) and the file is terminated with a end of file mark (CHR(26)).

See Also: Delimited File, Program File, SDF File

Volume :

A unit of disk storage uniquely identified by a label and of fixed size. A hard disk can be partitioned into one or more volumes by an operation system utility. Volumes are subdivided into one or more directories organized in tree structure.

See Also: Directory, Disk