Place keyboard input into a memory variable


      ACCEPT [<expPrompt>] TO <idVar>


<expPrompt> is an optional prompt displayed before the input area. The prompt can be an expression of any data type.

<idVar> is the variable that will hold input from the keyboard. If the specified <idVar> does not exist or is not visible, a private variable is created.


ACCEPT is a console command and wait state that takes input from the keyboard and assigns it as a character string to the specified variable. When ACCEPT is executed, it first performs a carriage return/linefeed, displays the prompt, and then begins taking characters from the keyboard at the first character position following the prompt. You may input up to 255 characters. When input reaches the edge of the screen, as defined by MAXCOL(), the cursor moves to the next line.

ACCEPT supports only two editing keys: Backspace and Return. Esc is not supported. Backspace deletes the last character typed. Return confirms entry and is the only key that can terminate an ACCEPT. If Return is the only key pressed, ACCEPT assigns a null value (“”) to <idVar>.


      .  This example uses ACCEPT to get keyboard input from the user:
      LOCAL cVar
      ACCEPT "Enter a value: " TO cVar
      IF cVar == ""
         ? "User pressed Return"
         ? "User input:", cVar




 Suspend program processing until a key is pressed

     WAIT [<expPrompt>] [TO <idVar>]


     <expPrompt> is an expression of any data type displayed as a prompt.
     If no <expPrompt> is specified, the default prompt displayed is:  "Press
     any key to continue..."

     TO <idVar> is the variable, of any storage class, that holds the
     value of the key pressed as a character value.  If <idVar> does not
     exist or is not visible, it is created as a private variable and then
     assigned the character value.


     WAIT is a console command and wait state that displays a prompt after
     sending a carriage return/line feed to the screen.  It then waits for
     the user to press a key.  If the TO clause is specified, <idVar> is
     assigned the keystroke as a character value.  If an Alt or Ctrl key is
     pressed, WAIT assigns CHR(0) to <idVar>.  Non-alphanumeric values
     entered by pressing an Alt-keypad combination assign the specified
     character.  If the character can be displayed, it is echoed to the
     screen.  Function keys are ignored unless assigned with SET FUNCTION or
     SET KEY.

     WAIT is a compatibility command and, therefore, is not recommended for
     general usage.  It is superseded by both @...GET/READ and INKEY() for
     getting single character input.


     .  WAITing without a prompt: To pause execution without
        displaying a prompt, specify WAIT, null string (""), or INKEY(0).
        The latter is recommended since it does not disturb the current
        screen cursor position.


     .  This example illustrates how to store the WAIT keystroke as an
        array element:

        aVar := ARRAY(6)

        WAIT "Press a key..." TO aVar[1]
        ? aVar[1]                  // Result: key pressed in
                                   // response to WAIT
        ? aVar[2]                  // Result: NIL
        ? VALTYPE(aVar)            // Result: A
        ? VALTYPE(aVar[1])         // Result: C

 Files   Library is CLIPPER.LIB.



C5 Commands

 ?|??            Display one or more values to the console
 @...BOX         Draw a box on the screen
 @...CLEAR       Clear a rectangular region of the screen
 @...GET         Create a new Get object and display it
 @...PROMPT      Paint a menu item and define a message
 @...SAY         Display data at a specified screen or printer row and column
 @...TO          Draw a single- or double-line box
 ACCEPT*         Place keyboard input into a memory variable
 APPEND BLANK    Add a new record to the current database file
 APPEND FROM     Import records from a database (.dbf) file or ASCII text file
 AVERAGE         Average numeric expressions in the current work area
 CALL*           Execute a C or Assembler procedure
 CANCEL*         Terminate program processing
 CLEAR ALL*      Close files and release public and private variables
 CLEAR GETS      Release Get objects from the current GetList array
 CLEAR MEMORY    Release all public and private variables
 CLEAR SCREEN    Clear the screen and return the cursor home
 CLEAR TYPEAHEAD Empty the keyboard buffer
 CLOSE           Close a specific set of files
 COMMIT          Perform a solid-disk write for all active work areas
 CONTINUE        Resume a pending LOCATE
 COPY FILE       Copy a file to a new file or to a device
 COPY STRUCTURE  Copy the current .dbf structure to a new database (.dbf) file
 COPY STRU EXTE  Copy field definitions to a .dbf file
 COPY TO         Export records to a database (.dbf) file or ASCII text file
 COUNT           Tally records to a variable
 CREATE          Create an empty structure extended (.dbf) file
 CREATE FROM     Create a new .dbf file from a structure extended file
 DELETE          Mark records for deletion
 DELETE FILE     Remove a file from disk
 DELETE TAG      Delete a tag
 DIR*            Display a listing of files from a specified path
 DISPLAY         Display records to the console
 EJECT           Advance the printhead to top of form
 ERASE           Remove a file from disk
 FIND*           Search an index for a specified key value
 GO              Move the pointer to the specified identity
 INDEX           Create an index file
 INPUT*          Enter the result of an expression into a variable
 JOIN            Create a new database file by merging from two work areas
 KEYBOARD        Stuff a string into the keyboard buffer
 LABEL FORM      Display labels to the console
 LIST            List records to the console
 LOCATE          Search sequentially for a record matching a condition
 MENU TO         Execute a lightbar menu for defined PROMPTs
 NOTE*           Place a single-line comment in a program file
 PACK            Remove deleted records from a database file
 QUIT            Terminate program processing
 READ            Activate full-screen editing mode using Get objects
 RECALL          Restore records marked for deletion
 REINDEX         Rebuild open indexes in the current work area
 RELEASE         Delete public and private memory variables
 RENAME          Change the name of a file
 REPLACE         Assign new values to field variables
 REPORT FORM     Display a report to the console
 RESTORE         Retrieve memory variables from a memory (.mem) file
 RESTORE SCREEN* Display a saved screen
 RUN             Execute a DOS command or program
 SAVE            Save variables to a memory (.mem) file
 SAVE SCREEN*    Save the current screen to a buffer or variable
 SEEK            Search an order for a specified key value
 SELECT          Change the current work area
 SET ALTERNATE   Echo console output to a text file
 SET BELL        Toggle sounding of the bell during full-screen operations
 SET CENTURY     Modify the date format to include or omit century digits
 SET COLOR*      Define screen colors
 SET CONFIRM     Toggle required exit key to terminate GETs
 SET CONSOLE     Toggle console display to the screen
 SET CURSOR      Toggle the screen cursor on or off
 SET DATE        Set the date format for input and display
 SET DECIMALS    Set the number of decimal places to be displayed
 SET DEFAULT     Set the CA-Clipper default drive and directory
 SET DELETED     Toggle filtering of deleted records
 SET DELIMITERS  Toggle or define GET delimiters
 SET DESCENDING  Change the descending flag of the controlling order
 SET DEVICE      Direct @...SAYs to the screen or printer
 SET EPOCH       Control the interpretation of dates with no century digits
 SET ESCAPE      Toggle Esc as a READ exit key
 SET EXACT*      Toggle exact matches for character strings
 SET EXCLUSIVE*  Establish shared or exclusive USE of database files
 SET FILTER      Hide records not meeting a condition
 SET FIXED       Toggle fixing of the number of decimal digits displayed
 SET FORMAT*     Activate a format when READ is executed
 SET FUNCTION    Assign a character string to a function key
 SET INDEX       Open one or more order bags in the current work area
 SET INTENSITY   Toggle enhanced display of GETs and PROMPTs
 SET KEY         Assign a procedure invocation to a key
 SET MARGIN      Set the page offset for all printed output
 SET MEMOBLOCK   Change the block size for memo files
 SET MESSAGE     Set the @...PROMPT message line row
 SET OPTIMIZE    Change the setting that optimizes using open orders
 SET ORDER       Select the controlling order
 SET PATH        Specify the CA-Clipper search path for opening files
 SET PRINTER     Toggle echo of output to printer or set the print destination
 SET PROCEDURE*  Compile procedures and functions into the current object file
 SET RELATION    Relate two work areas by a key value or record number
 SET SCOPE       Change the boundaries for scoping keys in controlling order
 SET SCOPEBOTTOM Change bottom boundary for scoping keys in controlling order
 SET SCOPETOP    Change top boundary for scoping keys in controlling order
 SET SCOREBOARD  Toggle the message display from READ or MEMOEDIT()
 SET SOFTSEEK    Toggle relative seeking
 SET TYPEAHEAD   Set the size of the keyboard buffer
 SET UNIQUE*     Toggle inclusion of non-unique keys into an index
 SET WRAP*       Toggle wrapping of the highlight in menus
 SKIP            Move the record pointer to a new position
 SORT            Copy to a database (.dbf) file in sorted order
 STORE*          Assign a value to one or more variables
 SUM             Sum numeric expressions and assign results to variables
 TEXT*           Display a literal block of text
 TOTAL           Summarize records by key value to a database (.dbf) file
 TYPE            Display the contents of a text file
 UNLOCK          Release file/record locks set by the current user
 UPDATE          Update current database file from another database file
 USE             Open an existing database (.dbf) and its associated files
 WAIT*           Suspend program processing until a key is pressed
 ZAP             Remove all records from the current database file


Parsing Text – Tokens

From Harbour changelog (at 2007-04-04 10:35 UTC+0200 By Przemyslaw Czerpak )
Added set of functions to manipulate string tokens:
HB_TOKENCOUNT( <cString>, [ <cDelim> ], [ <lSkipStrings> ],
 [ <lDoubleQuoteOnly> ] ) -> <nTokens>

 HB_TOKENGET( <cString>, <nToken>, [ <cDelim> ], [ <lSkipStrings> ],
 [ <lDoubleQuoteOnly> ] ) -> <cToken>

 HB_TOKENPTR( <cString>, @<nSkip>, [ <cDelim> ], [ <lSkipStrings> ],
 [ <lDoubleQuoteOnly> ] ) -> <cToken>

 HB_ATOKENS( <cString>, [ <cDelim> ], [ <lSkipStrings> ],
 [ <lDoubleQuoteOnly> ] ) -> <aTokens>

 All these functions use the same method of tokenization. They can
 accept as delimiters string longer then one character. By default
 they are using " " as delimiter. " " delimiter has special mening

 Unlike other delimiters repeted ' ' characters does not create empty
 tokens, f.e.: 

 HB_ATOKENS( " 1 2 3 " ) returns array:
 { "1", "2", "3" }

 Any other delimiters are restrictly counted, f.e.:

 HB_ATOKENS( ",,1,,2,") returns array:
 { "", "", "1", "", "2", "" }
And a strong suggession made at 2009-12-09 21:25 UTC+0100 ( By Przemyslaw Czerpak )
I strongly suggest to use hb_aTokens() and hb_token*() functions.
 They have more options and for really large data many times
 (even hundreds times) faster.

#define CRLF HB_OsNewLine()
LOCAL cTextFName := "Shakespeare.txt",;

 SetMode( 40, 120 )


 HB_MEMOWRIT( cTextFName,;
 "When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st," + CRLF + ;
 "So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see," + CRLF + ;
 "So long lives this, and this gives life to thee." )

 aLines := HB_ATOKENS( MEMOREAD( cTextFName ), CRLF )

 ? "Text file line by line :"
 AEVAL( aLines, { | c1Line | QOUT( c1Line ) } )
 WAIT "Press a key for parsing as words"
 ? "Text file word by word :"
 FOR EACH c1Line IN aLines
 a1Line := HB_ATOKENS( c1Line ) 
 AEVAL( a1Line, { | c1Word | QOUT( c1Word ) } )
 WAIT "Press a key for parsing directly as words"
 ? "Text file directly word by word :"
 aWords := HB_ATOKENS( MEMOREAD( cTextFName ) )
 AEVAL( aWords, { | c1Word | QOUT( c1Word ) } ) 

 @ MAXROW(), 0
 WAIT "EOF TP_Token.prg" 

RETURN // TP_Token.Main()

Parsing Text – FParse()

Parses a delimited text file and loads it into an array.
Syntax :
FParse( <cFileName>, <cDelimiter> ) --> aTextArray
Arguments :
<cFileName> : This is a character string holding the name of the text file to load 
 into an array. It must include path and file extension. 
 If the path is omitted from <cFileName>, 
 the file is searched in the current directory. 

 <cDelimiter> : This is a single character used to parse a single line of text. 
 It defaults to the comma.
Return :
The function returns a two dimensional array, or an empty array when the file 
cannot be opened. 

Description :

 Function FParse() reads a delimited text file and parses each line 
 of the file at <cDelimiter>. The result of line parsing is stored in an array.
This array, again, is collected in the returned array, 
 making it a two dimensional array
FParse() is mainly designed to read the comma-separated values (or CSV) file format, 
 were fields are separated with commas and records with new-line character(s). 

Library is : xHb 

#define CRLF HB_OsNewLine()
LOCAL cTextFName := "Shakespeare.txt",;

 SetMode( 40, 120 )


 HB_MEMOWRIT( cTextFName,;
              "When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st," + CRLF + ;
              "So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see," + CRLF + ;
              "So long lives this, and this gives life to thee." )

 aLines := FParse( cTextFName, " " )

 ? "Text file word by word :"
 FOR EACH a1Line IN aLines
    AEVAL( a1Line, { | c1Word | QOUT( c1Word ) } )
 @ MAXROW(), 0
 WAIT "EOF TP_FParse.prg" 

RETURN // TP_FParse.Main()


Clipper and Networking

Clipper and Networking

Nested Hashes

 Since a <Value> of a hash's pair may be in any scalar or complex type,
 a hash may be nested by assigning an another hash to a hash <Value>. 

   SetMode( 50, 120 )


   hSouth := { 'Argentina' => "Buenos Aires",;
               'Brasil'    => "Brasilia",;
               'Chile'     => "Santiago" }

   hNorth:= { 'USA'    => "Washington DC",;
              'Canada' => "Ottawa",; 
              'Mexico' => "Mexico City" } 

   * a hash contains two hashes :

   hAmerica := { "America" => { "North" => hNorth,;
                                "South" => hSouth } } 

   * Standart array indexing syntax :

   ? hAmerica[ "America", "North", "USA" ] // Washington DC

   * Alternate syntax to indexing :

   ? hAmerica[ "America"][ "South" ][ "Chile" ] // Santiago

   @ MAXROW(), 0
   WAIT "EOF HashNest.prg"

RETURN // HashNest.Main()